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                                    Robert T. Hitlan, Ph.D

                                                                                            
                                                                          
                                                                                  Department of Psychology
                                                                University of Northern Iowa
                                                                     Cedar Falls, IA 50614
                                                                      Phone: 319.273.2223
                                                                      Fax: 319.273.6188
                                                                 E-mail: rob.hitlan@uni.edu
 
 
 
                                             "In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great 
                                              difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; 
                                                                          and in the next place oblige it to control itself."
                                                                                                                                                            James Madison
                                                                                                                                                              (1751-1836)

 

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Peer-Reviewed Publications:

     DeSoto, M. C., Hitlan, R. T. (2012). Comments on the CDC case-control study and autism: Mass supplementation with synthetic folic
acid. Special Issue: Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry: Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

     DeSoto, M. C., Hitlan, R. T. (2012). Fish consumption advisories and the surprising relationship to prevalence rate of developmental disability as reported by public schools. Journal of Environmental Protection.

    DeSoto, M. C., Hitlan, R. T. (2010). Sorting out the spinning of autism: Heavy metals and the question of incidence. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 70, 165-176.

     DeSoto, M. C., Hitlan, R. T., Deol, R. S., & McAdams, D. (2010). Testosterone fluctuations in young men: The difference between interacting with like and not-like others. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 173-178.

     Hitlan, R. T., & Noel, J. (2009). The Influence of Workplace Exclusion and Personality on Counterproductive Work Behaviors: An Interactionist Perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 477-502.

     Hitlan, R. T, Pryor, J. B., Hesson-McInnis, M. S., & Olson, M. (2009). Antecedents to gender harassment: An analysis of person and situation factors. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 61, 794-807.


     DeSoto, M. C. & Hitlan, R. T. (2008). Concerning blood mercury levels: A need to clarify.  Journal of  Child Neurology, 23, 463-465.


     DeSoto, M. C. & Hitlan, R. T. (2007). Blood levels of mercury are related to diagnosis of Autism: A reanalysis of an important data set. Journal of Child Neurology, 22, 1321-1323.


The question of what is leading to the apparent increase in autism is of great importance. Like the link between aspirin and heart attack, even a small effect can have major health implications. If there is any link between autism and mercury, it is absolutely crucial that the first reports of the question are not falsely stating that no link occurs. We have reanalyzed the data set originally reported by Ip et al. in 2004 and have found that the original p value was in error and that a significant relation does exist between the blood levels of mercury and diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the hair sample analysis results offer some support for the idea that persons with autism may be less efficient and more variable at eliminating mercury from the blood.

See also: http://www.ageofautism.com/2007/11/when-smart-scie.html

For answers to a list of frequently asked questions concerning DeSoto and Hitlan (2007) see: FAQ


This article has been selected for Faculty of 1000 Biology

Must Read
F1000 Factor 6.0

 
Blood levels of mercury are related to diagnosis of autism: a reanalysis of an important data set.
Desoto MC, Hitlan RT
J Child Neurol 2007 Nov 22(11):1308-11 

I found this article oddly exciting and disturbing because it involved the re-analysis of a classic paper {1} used to debunk the mercury hypothesis of autism spectrum disorder and the original conclusion is now in doubt. This re-analysis does not prove the mercury hypothesis by any stretch of the imagination but it does suggest that we have been too definitive in ruling it out. The result shown here does point out the need to be meticulous in statistical analysis both in the arithmetic and also in stating the hypothesis (e.g. as a one-tailed experiment). It certainly will re-ignite a controversy where, alas, there is more heat than light. For those of us involved in the study of the genomic underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder, this should encourage us to even greater rigor. {1} Ip et al. J Child Neurol 2004, 19:431-4 [PMID:15446391].

Competing interests: None declared
Evaluated 27 Nov 2007

Isaac Kohane Harvard Medical School, United States of America
PHYSIOLOGY

New Finding,  Controversial,  Refutation


     Hitlan, R. T. (2007, August 1). Implicit Attitude Measures: Advances and Controversy [Review of the book  - Implicit Measures of Attitudes]. PsycCritiques—Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books. 

     Walsh, B. M., & Hitlan, R. T. (2007).  Organizational stress: Investigating the impact of duel harassment experiences on appraisal and outcomes. North American Journal of Psychology, 9, 331-346.

     Hitlan, R. T., Carrillo, K., Aikman, S. N., & Zarate, M. A. (2007). Attitudes toward immigrant groups and the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 13, 1-18.       

     Hitlan, R. T., Schneider, K. T., & Walsh, B. (2006). Upsetting behavior: Reactions to personal and bystander sexual harassment experiences. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55, 187-195.

     Hitlan, R. T. (2006, November 8). Workplace Violence and Aggression: The Dark Side of Organizations [Review of the book  - Handbook of Workplace Violence]. PsycCritiques—Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 51 (No. 45), Article 9. 

     Hitlan, R. T. & DeSoto, M. C.(2006, March 8). The pros and cons of growing up in the electronic age [Review of the book  Imagination and Play in the Electronic Age]. PsycCritiques—Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 51 (No. 10), Article 17.  

     Hitlan, R. T., Cliffton, R. J., & DeSoto, M. C. (2006). Perceived Exclusion in the Workplace: The Moderating Effects of Gender on Work-Related Attitudes and Psychological Health. North American Journal of Psychology, 8, 217-236.

     Hitlan, R. T., Kelly, K., Schepman, S., Schneider, K. T., & Zarate, M. A. (2006). Language Exclusion and the Consequences of Perceived Ostracism in the Workplace . Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10, 56-70.

    Hitlan, R. T. (2007). The Ringelmann Effect. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Sage Publications.

     DeSoto, M. C., & Hitlan, R. T. (2005, October 26). Transgender, transsexual, or intersexual: A plight by any other name would tell as tragic [Review of the book   The Riddle of Gender: Science Activism, and Transgender Rights. PsycCritiques—Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 40 (No. 43), Article 8.

     Zárate, M. A., Garcia, B, Garza, A. A., & Hitlan, R. T. (2004). Cultural threat and perceived realistic group conflict as predictors of attitudes  towards Mexican immigrants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 99-105.

     Schneider, K. T., & Hitlan, R. T., & Radhakrishnan, P. (2000) An examination of the nature and correlates of ethnic harassment experiences in multiple contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 3-12.

     Estrada, A. X., Berggren, A. W., Hitlan, R. T., & Schneider, K. T. (1999). Sexual harassment of female officers and cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces. In M. Dansby (Ed.), Proceedings of the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute,3. DEOMI: Cocoa Beach, FL.

Conference Presentations:

     Hitlan, R. T., & Redlinger, P. (May, 2009). Coping with exclusion. Paper accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association conference, Chicago, IL

      Hitlan, R. T. & Noel, J. M. (April, 2009). The relation between perceived exclusion, personality, and counterproductive work behavior. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), New Orleans, LA.

      Hitlan, R. T. & DeSoto, M. C. (February, 2009). The Relation between testosterone, and social dominance orientation.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology conference, Tampa, Fl.

      Walsh, B. M. & Hitlan, R. T. (April, 2008) Convergent and discriminant validity of the workplace exclusion scale. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), San Francisco, CA.

      Hitlan, R. T., & **Noel, J. M. (January, 2007) Workplace exclusion: An interactionist perspective. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology conference, Memphis, TN.

     Hitlan, R. T., Schneider, K.T., & Walsh, B. (May, 2006). The impact of personal and bystander harassment experiences on appraisal. poster accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association conference, Chicago, IL

     B.M. Walsh & Hitlan, R. T. (March, 2006). The Impact of Sexual and Bystander Harassment on Female Employees’ Physical Health. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Iowa Psychological Association.

     Hitlan, R. T., & Schneider, K. T. (January, 2006). The impact of multiple harassment stressors on psychological distress using the SCL-90. Poster pesented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social  Psychology conference, Palm Springs, CA.

      Hitlan, R. T., & Harden, J. (2004, April). The impact of workplace exclusion and personality on workplace  attitudes and behaviors. In K. T. Schneider (chair), Emerging workplace diversity issues: Ethnicity, bilingualism, and workplace exclusion. Symposium paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL. abstract 

       Harden, J. & Hitlan, R. T. (2004, January). Predicting antisocial workplace behaviors: Examining the interaction between social exclusion and personality. Poster presented at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), Austin, TX. abstract

      Hitlan, R. T., & Harden, J. (2004, January). Exclusion at work: Examining the relation between exclusion and work-related attitudes and behaviors. In R. T. Hitlan & K. M. Kelly (Chairs), Broadening our perspective: New directions in the study of social exclusion and acceptance. Symposium paper presented at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), Austin, TX. abstract

      Hitlan, R. T.,  Zárate, M. A. & Schneider, K.T. (2003, April). Language exclusion: Its effects on psychological need-threat, workplace attitudes, and intergroup relations. In Bergman M. (Chair), Multiple identities and discrimination: Examining intersections of characteristics. Symposium presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), Orlando, Fl. slides. PDF (© do not copy or cite without permission)

     Hitlan, R. T., Kelly, K. & Zárate, M. A. (2003, February). The Effects of  Language-based Exclusion on Mood, and Psychological Threat. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social  Psychology conference, Los Angeles, CA.

      Zárate, M.A., Hitlan, R. T., Garza, A., & Aikman, S. (2002, October). Attitudes toward Mexican and Arab immigrants as a function of the September terrorist attacks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Experimental  Social Psychology, Columbus, OH. slides.PDF (© do not copy or cite without permission).


General Psychology Resources:       

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Public Agenda Survey Site -- .This is a great site (very user friendly) that provides public opinion data on such issues as abortion, crime, child care, the economy, the environment, gay rights, illegal drugs, immigration, race, right to die, etc...


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Last Updated 08/26/13