Subareas of Psychology
          There is great diversity within psychology.  Following are brief summaries of some of the major areas in which you can
concentrate your studies.  You should view these as opportunities, not limitations, since new areas are constantly
	Information about specific areas of psychology can be obtained from relevant APA Divisions .  Other ways to become
informed are to read related articles in journals and books, write to colleges and universities with specialized training
programs, and talk to psychologists knowledgeable about the area.
                      Clinical Psychology
	Clinical psychologists assess and treat people's mental and emotional disorders.  Such problems may range from the
normal psychological crises related to biological growth (e.g., rebellion in adolescence, inadequate self-esteem at
midlife) to extreme conditions such as schizophrenia or depression.  Many clinical psychologists also do research.  For
example, they may study the characteristics of psychotherapists that are associated
with improvement in the conditions of patients, or they may investigate the factors that contribute to the development of
phobias, or the cause of schizophrenia.  Clinical psychologists work in both academic institutions and health care
settings like clinics, hospitals, community mental health centers, and private practice.  Many clinical psychologists focus
their interest on special populations such as children, minority groups, or the elderly.  Others focus on treating certain
types of problems such a phobias, eating disorders, or depression.  Opportunities in clinical psychology are expanding
relative to populations that have not been served well in the past: children, families, the elderly, inmates, inner-city
residents, ethnic groups, and rural dwellers These opportunities exist in clinics, in other human service settings, and in
private practice.
In most states people with master's and bachelor's degrees may not independently practice psychology.  They may,
however work in clinical settings under the direction of a doctoral-level psychologist.  In some cases this work could
include testing or supervised therapy.  People preparing for careers in clinical psychology should investigate local
licensing laws carefully.  A list of state licensing boards is available from the APA Office of
                      Community Psychology
                  Community psychologists are
concerned with everyday behavior in natural settings-the home, the neighborhood, and workplace.  They seek to
understand the factors that contribute to normal and abnormal behavior in these settings.  They also w to promote health
and prevent disorders.  Whereas clinical psychologists tend to focus on individuals who show signs o disorder, most
community psychologists concentrate the efforts on groups of people w are not mentally ill (but may b at risk of
becoming so) or on the population in general.
                    Counseling Psychology
	Counseling psychologists foster and improve normal human functioning across the life span by helping people solve the problems, make the decisions,
and cope with the stresses of everyday life.  Typically, counseling psychologists work with normal or moderately
maladjusted people, individually or in groups, assessing their needs and providing a variety of therapies, ranging from
behavior modification to interpersonally oriented approaches.  They apply systematic, research-based approaches to help
themselves and others understand problems and develop potential solutions to them.
Counseling psychologists often use research to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and to search for novel
approaches to assessing problems and changing behavior.  Research methods may include structured tests, interviews,
interest inventories, and observations.  They also may be involved in a variety of activities such as helping people to stop
smoking or to adjust to college, consulting on physical problems that might have psychological causes or be responsive
to treatment with psychological techniques, teaching graduate-level practica in counseling, or developing and testing
techniques that students can use to reduce their anxiety about taking examinations.
Many counseling psychologists work in academic settings, but an increasing number are being employed in health care
institutions, such as community mental health centers, Veterans Administration hospitals, and private clinics.  Those
with master's degrees are often found in educational institutions, clinics, business, industry, government, and other
human service agencies.
		Developmental Psychology
	Developmental psychologists study human development across the life span, from newbom to aged.  Developmental
psychologists are interested in the description, measurement, and explanation of age-related changes in behavior; stages
of emotional development; universal traits and individual differences and abnormal changes in development.
 Many doctoral-level develop-
 mental psychologists are employed in academic settings, teaching and doing research.  They often consult on programs in
day-care centers, preschools, and hospitals and clinics for children.  They also evaluate intervention programs such as
Head Start and Follow Through and provide other direct services to children and families.  Other developmental
psychologists focus their attention on problems of aging and work in programs targeted at older populations.  Persons with
bachelor's- and master's-level training in developmental psychology work in applied settings such as daycare centers and
in programs with youth groups.
		Educational Psychology
	Educational psychologists study how people learn, and they design the methods and materials used to educate people of all ages.  Many educational
psychologists work in universities, in both psychology departments and schools of education.  Some conduct basic
research on topics related to the learning of reading, writing, mathematics, and science.  Others develop new methods of
instruction including designing computer software.  Still others train teachers and they investigate factors that affect
teachers' performance and morale.  Educational psychologists conduct research in schools and in federal, state, and local
education agencies.  They may be employed by governmental agencies or the corporate sector to analyze employees' skills
and to design and implement training programs.
	Traditionally, job opportunities for educational psychologists have been concentrated in academic and educational settings
and have been limited to those with doctoral degrees.  Recently industry and the military are offering increased
possibilities for people with doctoral degrees who can design and evaluate systems to teach complex technical skills. 
There are new opportunities in evaluation of social problems and policies as well.  All of these areas may begin to provide
jobs for those with master's degrees .
		Environmental Psychology
 	Environmental psychologists are concerned with the relations between psychological processes and physical environments.  These environments range
from homes and offices to urban areas and regions.  Environmental psychologists may do basic research, for example, on
people's attitudes toward different environments or their sense of personal space.  Or their research may be applied, such
as evaluating an office design or assessing the psychological impact of a government's plan to build a new waste-treatment
		Experimental Psychology

	"Experimental 'psychologist" is a general title applied to a diverse group of psychologists who conduct research on and
often teach about a variety of basic behavioral processes.  These processes include learning; sensation; perception; human
performance; motivation; memory; language, thinking, and communication; and the physiological processes underlying
behaviors such as eating, reading, and problem solving.  Experimental psychologists study the basic processes by which
humans take in, store, retrieve, express, and apply knowledge.  They also study the behavior of animals, often with a view
to gaining a better understanding of human behavior, but sometimes also because it is intrinsically interesting.
Most experimental psychologists work in academic settings, teaching courses and supervising students' research in
addition to conducting their own research.  Experimental psychologists are also employed by research institutions,
business, industry, and government.  A research-oriented doctoral degree is usually needed for advancement and mobility
in experimental psychology.
	Industrial/Organizational Psychology
	Industrial/organizational psychologists are concerned with the relation between people and work.  Their interests include
organizational structure and organizational change; workers' productivity and job satisfaction; consumer behavior;
selection, placement, training, and development of personnel; and the interaction between humans and machines.  Their
responsibilities on the job include research, development (translating the results of research into usable products or
procedures), and problem solving.
 	Industrial/organizational psychologists work in businesses, industries, governments, and colleges and universities.  Some may be self-employed as
consultants or work for management consulting firms.  In a business, industry, or government setting, industrial/
organizational psychologists might study the procedures on an assembly line and suggest changes to reduce the monotony
and increase the responsibility of workers.  Or they might advise management on how to develop programs to identify staff
with management potential or administer a counseling service for employees on career development and preparation for
 	Consumer psychologists are industrial/organizational psychologists whose interests he in consumers' reactions to a company's products or services. 
They investigate consumers' preferences for a particular package design or television commercial, for example, and
develop strategies for marketing products.  They also try to improve the acceptability and the safety of products and to help
the consumer make better decisions.
 	Engineering psychologists are industrial/organizational psychologists concerned with improving the interaction between humans and their working
environments, including jobs and the contexts in which they are performed.  Engineering psychologists help design
systems that require people and machines to interact, such as video-display units; they may also develop aids for training
people to use those systems.
 	Personnel psychologists are industrial/organizational psychologists who develop and validate procedures to select and evaluate personnel.  They may,
for example, develop instruments and guides for interviewers to use in screening
applicants for positions, or they may work with management and union representatives to develop criteria for assessing
employees' performance.
 	Jobs for industrial/organizational psychologists are available at both the master's and the doctoral level.  Opportunities for those with master's degrees tend
to be concentrated in business, industry, and government settings; doctoral-level psychologists also work in academic
settings and independent consulting work.
		Neuropsychology and Psychobiology
	Psychobiologists and neuropsychologists investigate the relation between physical systems and behavior.  Topics they
study include the relation of specific biochemical mechanisms in the brain to behavior, the relation of brain structure to
function, and the chemical and physical changes that occur in the body when we experience different emotions. 
Neuropsychologists also diagnose and treat disorders related to the central nervous system.  They may diagnose behavioral
disturbances related to suspected dysfunctions of the central nervous system and treat patients by teaching them new ways
to acquire and process information technique known as cognitive retraining.
 	Clinical neuropsychologists work in the neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatric, and pediatric units of hospitals, and in clinics.  They also work in academic
settings where they conduct research and train other neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and medical doctors.  Most
positions in neuropsychology and biopsychology are at the doctoral level, and many require postdoctoral tr@g.  Limited
opportunities exist at the bachelor's and master's level for technicians and research assistants.
		Psychometrics and QuantitativePsychology
	Psychometric and quantitative psychologists are concerned with the methods and techniques use tn acquiring and applying psycho logical knowledge.  A
psychometrician may revise old intelligence, personality, and aptitude tests or devise new ones.  These tests might be used
in clinical, counseling, and school settings, and in business and industry.  Other quantitative psychologists might assist a
researcher in psychology or in another field design or inter pret the results of an experiment.  To accomplish these tasks,
they may design new techniques for analyzing information.
Psychometricians and quantitative psychologists typically are well trained in mathematics, statistics, and computer
programing and technology.  Doctoral level psychometricians and quantitative psychologists are employed mainly by
universities and colleges, testing companies, private research firms, and government agencies.  Those wit master's degrees
often work for
		Rehabilitation Psychology
	Rehabilitation psychologist researchers and practitioners work with people who have suffered a physical deprivation or loss,
either at birth or through later damage such as resulting from a stroke.  They  sometimes help people adjust to the physical
handicaps associated with aging. Typically, people treated by rehabilitation psychologists face both psychological and
situational barriers to effective functioning in the world.Many rehabilitation psychologists work in medical rehabilitation institutes and hospitals.  Other rehabilitation
psychologists work in medical schools and universities, serve as consultants to or as administrators in state and federal
vocational rehabilitation agencies, or have private practices serving
		School Psychology
	School psychologists help educators and others promote the intellectual, social, and emotion development of children.  They also involved in creating
environments that facilitate learning an mental health.  They may evaluate and plan programs for children with special
needs or deal with less severe problems such as disruptive behavior in the classroom.  They sometimes engage in program
development and staff consultation to prevent problems.  They sometimes provide on-the-job training for teachers in
classroom management, consult with parents and teachers on w to support a child's efforts in school, and consult with
school administrators on a variety of psychological and educational issues.
School psychologists may be found in academic settings, where they train other school psychologists and do research, for
example, comparing the effectiveness of different tests in diagnosing a child's learning problems.  Other settings in which
school psychologists work are nursery schools, day-care centers, hospitals, mental health clinics, federal and state govern
ment agencies, child guidance centers, penal institutions, and behavioral research laboratories Some school psychologists
work in private practice.To be employed in the public schools of a given state, school psychologists must have complete a state-approved training program (or the equivalent) and be certified
       by the state.  Certification as a school psychologist can usually be obtained after 60 hours of gradate work and a one-year supervised internship.  Many persons now practicing school psychology in the United States have been trained
   at the certificate level.  APA's policy regarding use of the title "school psychologist" sets higher standard than do
   many state school psychology certification requirements.  The APA standards require that individuals using the title
   "school psychologist" have a doctoral degree from a regionally accredits university or professional school providing
   an organized, sequential school psychology program in a department of psychology in a university or college, in an
   appropriate department of a school of education or other similar administrative organization, or in a unit o a
   professional school (APA, 1981).  School psychologists trained at the doctoral level often find employment in a
   variety of settings including schools, hospitals, university training programs, mental health clinics, and other
   agencies.  Typically, in comparison to nondoctoral professionals in school psychology, the Doctoral level school
   psychologist has mor research and evaluation training a well as more in-depth clinical and consultative training.  The
   number of jobs in school psychology has increased slowly but steadily in the last decade.  The opportunities
		Social Psychology
	Social psychologists study how people interact with each other and how they are affected by social environments.  They s
individuals as well as groups, observable behaviors, and private thoughts.  Topics of interest to social psychologists include
personality theories, the formation of attitudes and attitude change, attractions between people such as friendship and love,
prejudice, group dynamics and violence and aggression.  Social psychologists might, for example, study how attitudes toward
the elderly influence the elderly person's selfconcept, or they might investigate how unwritten rules of behavior develop in
groups and how those rules regulate the conduct of group members.
	Social psychologists can be found in a wide variety of academic settings, and, increasingly, in many nonacademic settings. 
For example, more social psychologists than before now work in advertising agencies, corporations, hospitals,
educational institutions, and architectural and engineering firms as researchers, consultants, and personnel managers.  As with
experimental psychology, a research oriented doctoral degree is usually necessary in social psychology-
The following are areas of psychology that are either emerging or expanding which should provide an increasing number of jobs in the coming years.
Family Psychology
Family psychologists are practitioners, researchers, and educators concerned with the prevention of family conflict, the
treatment of marital and family problems, and the maintenance of normal family functioning.  They concentrate on the
family structure and the interaction between members rather than on the individual .
As service providers, they often design and conduct programs for marital enrichment, pre-marital
            prepartion, improved parent-child relations and parent education about children with special needs.
            They also provide treatment for marital conflicts and problems that affect whole families.
  As researchers, they seek to identify environmental and personal factors that are associated with improved family
   functioning.  They may study communication patterns in families with a hyperactive child or conduct research on child
   abuse or the effects of divorce and remarriage on family members.  A subgroup of family psychologists specializes in the
   prevention and treatment of sexual dysfunction and in research on human sexuality.
   		Doctoral programs in family psychology are just beginning to appear.  Traditionally most family psychologistshave earned their degree in a professional area of psychology, and then obtained advanced training in departments of
   psychiatry, family institutes, or through individual supervision.  Postdoctoral training programs are becoming more
   		Family psychologists are often employed in medical schools, hospitals, private practice, family institutes and community
   agencies.  Job opportunities also exist for university teachers, forensic family psychologists, and consultants to industry.
  		Health Psychology
  	Health psychologists are researchers and practitioners concerned with psychology's contribution to the promotion and the
  maintenance of good health, and the prevention and the treatment of illness.  As applied psychologists or clinicians, they
  may, for example, design and conduct programs to help individuals stop smoking, lose weight, manage stress, prevent
  cavities, or stay physically fit.
  	As researchers, they seek to identify conditions and practices that are associated with health and illness.  For example, they
  might study the effects of relocation on an elderly person's physical well-being.  In public service roles they study and work
  to improve government's policies and systems for health care.
  	Doctoral programs in health psychology are just beginning to appear.  Most health psychologists now earn their degree in
  another area of psychology such as clinical or counseling but concentrate their studies, research, and practical experiences in
  health psychology.  Postdoctoral work is often required.
  	For the past decade the most common setting in which health psychologists have found employment is medical centers. 
  However, more opportunities are opening for health psychologists as consultants to industry on the promotion of health. 
  Other health care settings are also providing jobs for health psychologists; these include hospitals, health maintenance
  organizations, rehabilitation centers, public health agencies, and private practice.
  		Psychology of Aging
  	Researchers in the psychology of aging (geropsychology) draw on Sociology, biology, and other disciplines as well as
  psychology to study the factors associated with adult development and aging.  For example, they may investigate how the
  brain and the nervous system change as humans age and what effects those changes have on behavior or how a person's style
  of coping with problems varies with age- Clinicians in geropsychology apply their knowledge about the aging process to
  improvethe psychological welfare of the elderly.
  	Many people interested in the psychology of aging are trained in a more traditional graduate program in psychology, such
  as experimental, clinical, developmental, or social.  While they are enrolled in such a program, they become
  geropsychologists by focusing their research, coursework, and practical experiences on adult development and aging.
  Increases in the percentage of the population that is aged 65 or over and greater social attention to the needs, the problems,
  and the potentials of older persons have contributed to a growth in the demand for geropsychologists.  Geropsychologists are
  finding jobs in academic settings, research centers, industry, health care organizations, mental health clinics, and agencies
  serving the elderly.  Some are engaged in private practice, either as clinical or counseling psychologists, or as consultants on
  such matters as the design and the evaluation of programs.
  	A doctorate is normally required for teaching, research, and clinical practice, but an increasing number of employment
  opportunities are becoming available for people with associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees.  These positions typically
  involve the supervised provision of services to adults in nursing homes, senior citizens centers, or state and local
  government offices for the elderly.
  		Psychology and Law, and Forensic Psychology
  	Psychology and law is a new field with career opportunities at several levels of training.  As an
  area of research, psychology and law is concerned both with looking at legal issues from a psychological perspective (e.g.,
  how juries decide cases) and with looking at psychological questions in a legal context (e.g., how jurors assign blame or
  responsibility for a crime).
  	Forensic psychology is the term given to the applied and clinical facets of psychology and law.  Forensic psychologists
  might help a judge decide which parent should have custody of the children or evaluate the victim of an accident to
  determine if he or she sustained psychological or neurological damage.  In criminal cases, forensic psychologists might
  evaluate a defendant's mental competence to stand trial.  Some forensic psychologists counsel inmates and probationers;
  others counsel the victims of crimes and help them prepare to testify, cope with emotional distress, and resume their normal
  	Some specialists in this field have doctoral degrees in both psychology and law.  Others were trained in a traditional
  graduate psychology program, such as clinical, counseling, social, or experimental, and chose courses, research topics, and
  practical experiences to fit their interest in psychology and law.
  	Jobs for people with doctoral degrees are available in psychology departments, law schools, research organizations,
  community mental health agencies, law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional settings.  Some forensic
  psychologists work in private practice.  Master's and bachelor's-level positions are available in prisons, correctional
  institutions, probation departments, forensic units of mental institutions, law enforcement agencies, and community-based
  programs that assist victims.
  Psychology of Women
  	The psychology of women is the study of psychological and social factors affecting women's development and behavior. 
  The field includes the study of stereotypes about women, the relation of hormones to behavior, women's achievements in
  mathematics and science, the development of gender roles and identity, sexuality, psychological problems of women and
  their treatment, and physical and sexual abuse of women and girls.
  	Psychologists focusing on the psychology of women are found in academic settings and a variety of clinical settings.  Current
  research topics include women's reactions to being raped and the best treatment techniques for rape victims, factors that
  promote managerial success, factors that discourage talented girls from obtaining advanced mathematics training, and the
  causes of eating disorders such as anorexia.  Clinicians whose area of concentration is the psychology of women may
  practice feminist therapy with women and girls.
  	Most psychologists whose concern is the psychology of women have received their training in clinical, developmental, or
  social psychology, or in psychobiology, pursuing their special interest within these broader areas . Teaching positions for
  doctoral level psychologists are available in psychology and women's studies departments.  Researchers who focus
  on health issues for women have been hired as faculty members in nursing, public health, social work, or psychiatry
  departments of universities.  Clinicians work in mental health centers and in private practice..