For each example below identify the type of consequence.
Remember, in each case a consequence is something which follows a behavior.
Consequences may increase or decrease the likelihood (in the future) of
the behavior that they follow. For example:
PR (positive reinforcement) - something good is presented, which encourages the behavior in the future
NR (negative reinforcement) - something bad is removed or avoided, which encourages the occurrance of the behavior.
PP (positive punishment) - something bad is presented, which discourages the behavior in the future.
NP (negative punishment) - something good is removed, which discourages the behavior in the future.
____ Police stop drivers and give them a prize if their seatbelts are buckled; seat belt use increases in town.
____ A basketball player who commits a flagrant foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later games.
____ A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors after that.
____ The annoying child jumps up and down, hand raised,
yelling "Me, me, me!" until the teacher calls on her.
The child jumps and yells even more in the future.
____ After a good workout in physical therapy, hospital patients are given ice cream sundaes. They work harder in later sessions.
____ Homeowners who re-cycle get to deduct 5% from their utility bill. Recycling increases after this program begins.
____ After completing an Alcohol Education Program, the
suspension of your driver's license is lifted.
More DWI drivers now complete the program.
____ After Jodi flirted with someone else at the party, her boyfriend stopped talking to her. Jodi didn't flirt at the next party.
____ The employee of the month gets a reserved parking space. Employees now work harder.
____ A dog is banished to his doghouse after soiling the living room carpet. The dog has fewer accidents after that.
____ A professor allows those students with A averages in the class to skip the final exam. Students work harder for As.
____ You clean up your stuff more regularly now to avoid your roommate's (or mother's) nagging.
____ You've learned a particular response in your videogame
gets rid of one of the "bad guys".
You now always respond that way at the appropriate time.
____ Making just the right facial expression softens up
your sweetie when he/she is mad at you.
You make that facial expression more often now .
Schedules of Reinforcement - for each example below identify the schedule of reinforcement (6 pts)
Remember: Consequences don't always follow every occurrance
of a behavior. Some commom
contingencies or ways of "scheduling" when a reinforcement is available are:
FR (fixed ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a certain fixed number of correct response have occurred
VR (variable ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a variable (unpredictable) number of responses hsve occurred
FI (fixed interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response that occurs after a specific interval of time has passed
VI (variable interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response occurring after a variable interval of time has passed
____ You get paid once every two weeks.
____ A worker is paid $2 for every 100 envelopes stuffed.
____ Slot machines at casinos payoff after a variable number of plays.
____ Students are released from class when the end-of-period bell rings.
____ A fly fisherman casts and reels back his line several times before catching a fish.
____ You get a nickel for every pop can that you return.
____ Every time you buy a sandwich you get your card punched; after 10 punches you get a free sandwich.
____ Sometimes the mail is delivered at 1:00, sometimes closer to 2:00.
____ A car salesman who gets a commission on each sale.
____ Getting a small increase in your hourly wage every 6 months.
____ Every so often you like to surprise your special other with something nice.
____ Matt gets a hit about once every 3 times he
is at bat (sometimes a little more often, sometimes less).