Emmit was hurt in an auto accident but at the hospital would not submit to a MRI exam of his injuries because it required spending time in a narrow enclosed scanner.
While teaching her class one day Teresa suddenly began to feel like she couldnt catch her breath. Her heart pounded wildly and she felt dizzy and weak. She felt like he might be having a hart attack (but she wasnt).
Panic Disorder (an anxiety disorder)
Sams friends are worried about him. Normally energetic and outgoing, Sam has become sullen and withdrawn. He has little energy, has lost weight, and has been missing team practices and fraternity meetings. When they tried to talk to him he only had negative things to say about himself.
Sonya was plagued by 7s. She could not take a 7th step when walking (she had to do a little skip), she couldnt get off at the 7th floor (her floor) in her apartment building). When the phone company changed the area code of her region she moved rather than have an area code of 708. She would say "Keep the change" rather than getting back an amount of money that had 7 in it.
Bob, a 22 yr old, was admitted to the hospital after a brief period of bizarre behavior. His parents said that he had been unusually withdrawn & then at dinner one day became rigid & unmoving. By the time the family doctor arrived Bob had entered a period of intense activity, running thru the house, rolling on the floor, unwilling to be restrained. At the hospital he continued to alternate between period of statue-like immobility and periods of wild motor activity. (Davison & Neale, 1982)
Roger said he was a "born soldier" - he wore army fatigues and a buzz cut (although the army had in fact rejected him for psychiatric reasons). He was eventually committed when he threatened to blow up a recruiting post, claiming that aliens had taken it over. He believed he was 1 of the last "true" earthmen - the aliens had already invaded the bodies of most other humans, and were definitely plotting to get him next. (Davison & Neale, 1982)
Bernice had an unhappy childhood but did enjoy college. After graduation she entered a loveless marriage when her "true love" married someone else. When she was 37 her youngest child got sick & died. The next day Bernice disappeared & could not be found. Four yrs later she was recognized in her old college town. She said her name was Rose & she had been earning her living giving piano lessons, with no awareness of her earlier life. (adapted from Masserman, 1961)
Dissociative Fugue (a dissociative disorder)
Carlas husband suddenly died of a heart attack. They had no children & she felt completely alone. Long after the usual period of mourning she was as totally miserable as the day he had died. She spent her days sitting in their darkened apartment seeing almost no one. She lost interest in everything & was unable to do more than the simplest of household chores. She could think of nothing but her husbands death & that she was somehow responsible. She confided to a neighbor that she was thinking of taking her life.
Unipolar Depression - reactive depression
From the time she was 31 until age 61, Marjorie left her apartment only 3 times. On those occasions she braved the sheer terror she felt to visit family when she was 42, have an operation when she was 44 & buy ice cream for her dying roommate. (Adler et al, 1984)
Agoraphobia (an anxiety disorder)
John is a 38 yr old who frequently suffers from the sudden onset of intense physical symptoms of anxiety, feeling as if he is having a heart attack (chest pains, pounding heart, shortness of breath, numbness, panting, inability to swallow). (Leon, 1977)
Panic Disorder (an anxiety disorder)
Howard was so concerned about germs that he would spend 3 hours cleaning his phone if anyone else touched it and he wrote 3 pages of instructions for his assistant on how to properly open cans of fruit for him and even lengthier instructions for what procedures needed to be followed for anyone making any deliveries to the house. (Bartlett & Steele, 1979)
Ben was a 30 yr old with an intense fear of heights & of crossing bridges. For several years he had avoided going anywhere that required crossing of bridges. Most recently he had been asked to dine with his boss at a restaurant atop a 52 story building. He had developed nausea & diarrhea & had been too anxious to eat, so finally sought out treatment. (Hurley, 1976)
Specific phobia (acrophobia=fear of heights)
Late every fall successful writer Sharon finds her ability to concentrate and work declines, she becomes irritable & withdrawn, overeats & oversleeps & generally is unable to function. Her energy, enjoyment of life, & productivity returns to normal in the spring.
Seasonal affective disorder
John works in a government office & has "good days" & "bad days" that are more extreme than most. One morning he arrived an hour early to hang crepe paper streamers & piles of signs with inspirational messages. During the next few months he worked at a feverish pace, dictating loads of letters and instituting new office procedures. Then he sank into a period of depression & fatigue, staying in his darkened office, blaming himself for problems in & outside of the office, saying the world would be better off without him.
Bipolar Disorder (manic-depressive disorder)
When Robert arrived at the clinic his answers to routine questions were peculiar & made little sense. He complained of having ice cubes in his ears and called himself a "urine reservoir". He refused to call his family because "insects come out of little holes". He reported that his TV sent him messages directing his diet & personal hygiene. (adapted from Spitzer, 1983)
Maurice is 20 yr old & maintains that he invented the atomic bomb to punish Nazis, homosexuals & short people. Its short people that hes really afraid of: Hes sure they are conspiring to make him look like a Republican & is convinced all the short people on television are saying bad things about him. He gets into arguments frequently (sometimes when no one else is present!). (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Margaret has hardly gotten out of bed for weeks although she is troubled by insomnia. She has no appetite and no energy. She feels dejected, discouraged & apathetic. Friends stop by to try to cheer her up, but she tells them not to waste their time on "pond scum." No particular negative event preceded Margarets sadness - in fact she says these feelings are nothing new - she remembers having times when she felt this way even as a child. (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Major or Unipolar Depression
Morris religiously follows an exact schedule every day. Showering & grooming take 2 hours. He cant study until his apartment is perfectly clean & neat. Although he tries not to worry about cleanliness & order he has not succeeded. Both his grades & his social life are suffering from his rigid routines. (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (an anxiety disorder)
Max hasnt slept in 4 days. Hes determined to write "the great American novel" in the 3 months before his class reunion. He brags about his novel to anyone who will listen, talking at such a rapid pace that no one can interrupt. He feels wired with energy & is supremely confident although hes only written 1-20 pages. Last week he charged $8000 worth of computer software which is supposed to help him write his book. (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Manic Phase of Bipolar Disorder
PL is a 44 yr old male apparently suffering from amnesia. He was found in a city 600 miles from his home. He had assumed a new identity and does not remember anything from before coming to this city.
dissociative amnesia and fugue
Mr. O., a teacher, charged into the principals office with his plan for tearing down the school and having his students rebuild it on the weekend. He was hospitalized and for 3 days paced the floor without eating or sleeping, talking exictedly about his plans to take over the hospital. He then wrote 100 letters to senators before collapsing from exhaustion.
A. R. is a 30 yr old women who cannot go above the 2nd floor of any building for more than a year now. If she tries she becomes overwhelmed by anxiety. She was forced to leave her former position (in a high-rise) and take a lower paying job on the 1st floor of a building.
Phobia (a specific phobia)
FB was a hospitalized mental patient. When asked his name he said his name always made him cry & proceeded to weep for a few minutes. When asked a serious question he would giggle uncontrollably. When he responded his replies often made little sense.
Example: What sort of moods have you been in lately?
Answer: If the world moved, the world moved.
Jeff was 1 of a handful of survivors of a major airline crash. He has frequency flashbacks of the mangled plane, has trouble sleeping and concentrating on work. He has an exaggerated startle response should anyone surprise him. His family is grateful he is alive and cant understand his continued difficulties more than a year after the experience.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Nathan owns a small restaurant thats in deep financial trouble. One day he suddenly loses all feeling in his right arm & the ability to move that arm. Hes hospitalized but the physicians cant find any organic cause for his arm trouble. (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Conversion Disorder (a somatoform disorder)
Ted B. was a highly intelligent young man who could be charming and persuasive when he wanted to. Although he murdered approximately 50 women, he showed no guilt or remorse.
Anti-social personality disorder
Jane has been unemployed for the last 8 yrs because she has had 1 health problem after another: Devastating headaches were followed by months of chronic back pain, then she developed respiratory problems so she frequently gasped for breath. Currently she suffers from stomach pains. Physicians have been unable to find any physical basis for any of her maladies. (adapted from Weitan, 1992)
Somatization Disorder (a somatoform disorder)