Neurology: First and Second Day
The study of
nervous system anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as
the treatment of its disorders
All of us will face the effects of nervous
system problems (or already have) – in ourselves, our friends and family,
and/or in our professional lives.
Former President Reagan
• Now the personality, intellect and behavior
America was once familiar with is lost to Alzheimer’s disease – a plight faced
by 4,000,000 Americans.
• This stroke survivor is
going through rehab. There are over 4,000,000 U.S. stroke survivors living with
varying degrees of disability due to some disruption of normal blood supply to
regions of brain.
• ~3,000,000 cases
Evaluation of an Infant’s Seizures
• ~2,000,000 Americans live
Michael J. Fox - just 1 of the at least
500,000 Americans with Parkinson’s Disease
• Two of the ~300,000
Americans suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS)
• Loss of bodily movement,
sensation, and even normal breathing due to damage to a region of the spinal
cord no bigger than your little finger. There are about 200,000 survivors of
spinal cord injury in the US.
Downey (left) has just been diagnosed with Huntington’s Disease. Like 30,000
others she faces a gradual deterioration of motor control, cognitive
functioning, personality and emotional control. There is a 50/50 chance that
her daughter has also inherited the disease-producing gene.
• The mind of a great
physicist trapped in an almost unmoving body due to amytrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS). There are ~25,000
cases of this tragic condition also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease)
Baby Tom had a hemispherectomy - half of
his cerebrum was removed to control seizures.
Brain Anatomy or Function to Psychological Disorder
Ongoing longitudinal study of the gradual loss of
cortex in childhood schizophrenia
Brain Less Active in Depression
Decreased Cortical Activity in ADHD
• The cingulum is one brain
region which appears to malfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Some
desperate patients have received a cingulotomy to try to treat their disorder
• More and more “mental
disorders” are being recognized as disorders associated with distinctive
nervous system changes.
• Recent studies suggest therapies,
both medical and psychological, bring about changes in brain function.
• We also learn about the
nervous system to better understand NORMAL or even exemplary nervous system
• Michel Flatley (Lord of the
Dance) has been clocked at 35 taps per second. It is his nervous system
commanding his performance.
An Olympic gymnast is just one example
of the precision, timing, &
coordination provided by the nervous system
Whoever your favorite composers or
performers, they owe their music to the nervous system.
Feats of mind - creative or scientific -
also products of the brain.
In a community of ~100,000 (like Cedar
Falls/Waterloo), you’ll find, on average:
Over 2000 will suffer from migraines.
There will be over 500 with
Over 350 will have experienced a
Over 250 will have
Over 130 will be experiencing serious
aftereffects of a concussion
Over 80 will suffer from shingles
Over 80 will have problems with their
Over 80 will have brain tumors.
Over 70 will have been born with a
congenital malformation of their nervous system
(like spina bifida)
Over 15 will have an infection of the
brain (encephalitis) or meninges (meningitis)
Over 250 will be born with
Over 300 will suffer from Meniere’s
ALL will be making continuous use of
their nervous systems for all aspects of mental activity and behavior, as well
as to regulate bodily functioning.
Over 800 individuals with traumatic
Over 250 will suffer from dementia.
Over 650 who have had strokes
Over 200 will suffer from Parkinson’s
Over 60 will have
Over 50 will have a spinal cord injury.
Over 30 will have Lou Gehrig’s Disease
Over 650 will experience epileptic
Some Basic Neuroanatomy
Parts of the Neuron
Gray & White Matter
areas with a high concentration of neuron cell bodies/dendrites look darker
(“gray matter”) and function like information processors – receiving and combining/processing
with lots of myelinated axons appear lighter (“white matter”) and function like
cables connecting regions
group of neuron cell bodies = “nucleus” (in CNS) or “ganglion” (in PNS)
group of axons = “tract” or “pathway” (in CNS) or “nerve” (in PNS)
Cortex is Gray Matter
White Matter Under Cortex
CNS vs PNS
• Central Nervous System
(CNS): brain and spinal cord
• Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS): all the nerves outside of the brain & cord
5 levels of spinal cord
Cross Section of Cord
Dermatomes Related to the 31 Pairs of
5 Chunks of Brain
Book Fig. 1.10 and 1.12
5 Vesicles in Embryonic Brain
Midline View of Brain
Central Sulcus and Lateral Fissure;
Precentral Gyrus and Postcentral Gyrus
Motor Cortex & Somatosensory Cortex