The characteristics of light waves
The parts of the eye
The structure of the retina
the receptor sites
on rods and cones
The differences between rods and cones
3 theories of color vision and where each seems to apply
the basis for color blindness/deficiency
The route taken by visual messages through brain
What is the difference between the “dorsal stream” and the “ventral stream”? The possible Middle stream?
Damage to different parts of the visual pathways can lead to different losses of visual ability? What happens in each of these cases?
Primary visual cortex totally
Ventral stream/Inferior temporal cortex/fusiform gyrus damagedMiddle temporal cortex damage
How sensory receptors have become specialized to respond to something other than a neurotransmitter message
Which sensory receptors make use of
ionotropic mechanisms, which are metabotropic
Characteristics of sound waves
Parts of ear and how they transmit sound input
Structure of cochlea and the hair cells in the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane
What triggers the electrical responses of the hair cells
Stops along the auditory pathway to cortex (superior olives, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate of thalamus)
How having 2 ears helps in sound localization
Frequency, volley and place theories of pitch perception
Organization of auditory cortex
2 types of deafness
Cochlear implants and how they work
The sensory organs and receptors of
the vestibular system and what they respond to
Pain as one of the body
sensations (somatosensory) and where those sensations are
pain receptors and what irritates
Neurotransmitters related to pain
The gate theory (or gate control
theory) of pain
and things that influence the gate
What is the descending pain
The characteristics and types of taste receptors
Individual differences in taste sensitivity
The difference between experiencing taste and experiencing flavor
Location and characteristics of olfactory receptors
What is anosmia (and specific anosmias)?
What is a pheromone? Example in animals? Example in humans?
How do we move
through the stages of sleep during a typical night of sleep?
How is NREM sleep different from REM sleep?
What parts of the
brain are involved in maintaining wakefulness/alertness? What
neurotransmitters are involved in keeping you awake?
What neurotransmitters are involved in
making you sleepy?
Why, specifically does caffeine keep you awake and do some anti-histamines make you sleepy?
What are the characteristics of each of these sleep disorders:
REM behavior disorder
What are some of the types of insomnia and possible physiological correlates (e.g. why might someone have “onset insomnia”?)
What are the 2 main theories about why we sleep?
2 theories about REM sleep?
What is a free-running rhythm? How do they differ in characteristics from the rhythms seen under normal conditions?
What is a zeitgeber?
What is the research evidence about the location of the circadian biological clock?
Describe 2 biological mechanisms by which the functioning of this biological clock may make us sleepy?
What stimulus is most effective in resetting the biological clock?
Describe at least 2
ways that you can “encourage” the resetting of your biological
clock if, for example, you were going to
What is meant by lateralization of function?
the anatomy and function of the corpus callosum
review the relationship between the right & left visual fields and the 2 hemispheres
What is a seizure? When do seizures qualify as epilepsy?
2 main types or categories of epilepsy and their causes
why cutting the corpus callosum would be expected to limit the spread of focal seizures
How are split brain patients tested by
What kinds of results from split brain research support the notion of lateralization?
What functions each hemisphere is dominant for (make a detailed list for each)
Give an example or 2 of competition between the hemispheres after surgery
What is the relationship between handedness and lateralization?
What is the planum temporale? What right
left differences have been noted here?
Name, locate and explain the function of the various parts of the language system of the brain
What happens if the frontal lobe portion of the language system is damaged and what are the symptoms?
What happens if the temporal lobe portion of the language system is damaged and what are the symptoms?