Module 2.2

Ions inside and outside of neuron and how that difference is maintained

Resting potential

Depolarization vs hyperpolarization

Voltage-activated  Ion channels in axon membrane

How the action potential is produced in axon

Characteristics of the action potential

Threshold

All or none law

Refractory period (absolute and relative)

Myelin sheaths, nodes of ranvier and how they affect the action potential process ; saltatory conduction

Examples of situations where ion channels aren’t working properly

Examples of conditions where myelin deteriorates and how it affects neuron messages

Ca++ channels in axon terminal, when they open and what the Ca++ triggers

The electrical responses of dendrites

Ionotropic receptors

EPSP

IPSP

summation of incoming messages (temporal and spatial)

meabotropic receptors and their effects

Examples of situations where ion channels aren’t working properly

Chapter 7 

How sensory receptors have become specialized to respond to something other than a neurotransmitter message

Which sensory receptors make use of ionotropic mechanisms, which are metabotropic

Characteristics of sound waves

Parts of ear and how they transmit sound input

Structure of cochlea and the hair cells in the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane

What triggers the electrical responses of the hair cells

Stops along the auditory pathway to cortex (superior olives, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate of thalamus)

How having 2 ears helps in sound localization

Frequency, volley and place theories of pitch perception

Organization of auditory cortex

2 types of deafness

Cochlear implants and how they work 

The sensory organs and receptors of the vestibular system and what they respond to

pain receptors and what irritates (activates) them

Neurotransmitters related to pain

The gate theory (or gate control theory) of pain

What is phantom limb pain and how may it be related to re-organization of the sensory homoculus

What is the descending pain suppression pathway?

The characteristics and types of taste receptors

Individual differences in taste sensitivity

The difference between experiencing taste and experiencing flavor

Location and characteristics of olfactory receptors

What is anosmia (and specific anosmias)?

What is a pheromone? Example in animals? Example in humans?

Chapter 6

The characteristics of light waves

The parts of the eye

The structure of the retina

The differences between rods and cones

3 heories of color vision and where each seems to apply

the basis for color blindness/deficiency

The route taken by visual messages through brain

What is the difference between the “dorsal stream” and the “ventral stream”?

Damage to different parts of the visual pathways can lead to different losses of visual ability? What happens in each of these cases?

Primary visual cortex totally damaged

Inferior temporal cortex/fusiform gyrus damaged

Middle temporal cortex damage