the neuron's cell membrane

Ions inside and outside of neuron and how that difference is maintained

Na/K pumps


membrane potential

Resting potential

Depolarization vs hyperpolarization

Voltage-activated  Ion channels in axon membrane

    voltage activated Na channels

    voltage activated K channels


How the action potential is produced in axon

axon hillock

Characteristics of the action potential (self-propagating and nondecremental)

All or none law

Refractory period (absolute and relative)

Myelin sheaths, nodes of ranvier and how they affect the action potential process

saltatory conduction

Ca++ channels in axon terminal, when they open and what the Ca++ triggers

The electrical responses of dendrites

Ionotropic receptors

metabotropic receptors and their effects

second messengers



summation of incoming messages (temporal and spatial)

Special neurons: sensory receptors

How sensory receptors have become specialized to respond to something other than a neurotransmitter message

Chapter 6

The characteristics of light waves

The parts of the eye

The structure of the retina

the receptor sites on rods and cones and the light sensitive pigments they contain

The differences between rods and cones

theories of color vision and where each seems to apply

the basis for color blindness/deficiency

The route taken by visual messages through brain

What is the difference between the “dorsal stream” and the “ventral stream”? The possible Middle stream?

Damage to different parts of the visual pathways can lead to different losses of visual ability? What happens in each of these cases?

Primary visual cortex totally damaged - cortical blindness

Dorsal stream/parietal damage

Ventral stream/Inferior temporal cortex/fusiform gyrus damaged

            Middle temporal cortex damage

visual agnosia



Characteristics of sound waves

Parts of ear and how they transmit sound input

Structure of cochlea and the hair cells in the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane

What triggers the electrical responses of the hair cells

Stops along the auditory pathway to cortex (superior olives, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate of thalamus)

How having 2 ears helps in sound localization

pitch perception

Organization of auditory cortex (tonotopic)

2 types of deafness

what activates pain receptors

areas of brain processing pain input

"gate control" of pain

pain suppression or analgesia system

The characteristics and types of taste receptors

The difference between experiencing taste and experiencing flavor

Location and characteristics of olfactory receptors

What is anosmia (and specific anosmias)?

What is a pheromone?