describe the relationship of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary (how does it control the anterior pituitary?)
draw the chain of command (hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovaries or testes and write in what kind of hormones are released at each level (related to sexuality). Draw in the negative feedback loops as well. What actually provides the feedback signal?
What is meant when we say sex hormones have ORGANIZING effects?
How does a sex chromosome play a role in the very first step of sexual differentiation? (be specific) What is the gene called?
Beyond that first step, what has the strongest influence on the remainder of sexual differentation? (be specific)
describe how one comes to have either male (wolffian) and/or female (mullerian) ducts
what is mullerian inhibiting hormone?
describe how one comes to have either male or female genitalia (or something in between)
what is dihydrotestosterone?
what do we mean by a sensitive period (or critical period)?
can you predict the effects of alterations in the early hormone environment (e.g. giving females androgens, removing androgens from males, giving huge doses of estrogens)
by what mechanism does testosterone appear to "masculinize" the brain of rats (and probably some other species too)
what is the role of alpha-fetoprotein (in this situation)
what is the sexually dimorphic nucleus? what is the analgous structure in humans?
give several behavioral and anatomical examples of how "sexual" differentiation affects more than sexual behavior and orientation
contrast "activational" effects (when they most often occur, how lasting they are) with organizational effect
just as early hormones affected more than sexuality, adult levels of activational hormones relate to more than sexual behavior - give several examples
what is likely to happen to sexual differentation (and what might happen in terms of gender identity later on) is these cases?
XY male with a mutated or missing SRY gene
XX female who receive a SRY through a crossing over in here father's genetic material
XY male who lacks the gene which produces androgen receptors
XX female who is exposed to somewhat higher than normal levels of androgens in utero
XX female who is exposed to very high levels of androgens in utero
XX female who is exposed to abnormally high levels of estrogens in utero
XY male with a defective gene for the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase
what biological factors would continue to influence the gender identity of the male child raised as a female after accidental removal of penis during circumcision?
what research findings support a role for each of the following in homosexual orientation:
early hormone (but not adult hormone) levels
stress during gestation having older brothers
What ideas/terms did each of the following individuals contribute to psychological theories of memory storage in the brain?
What 2 laws did he come up with?
Thompson's localization of the conditioned eyeblink memory trace
What is the difference between retrograde amnesia and anterograde
What have researchers used in experiments as a "trauma" to try
to disrupt the process of consolidation of LTMs? What did they learn
about timing of the trauma?
Animal data suggest an additional role for the hippocampus in memory beyond what has been examined in H.M. - what is another memory function of the hippocampus?
What is the difference between implicit and explicit memories (or the related terms procedural vs declarative memories)
Contrast 2 other well known memory disorders (Korsakoff's syndrome
Alzheimer's disease) with the amnesia produce by hippocampal damage.
what parts of the brain are involved and how
what aspects of memory are affected
who suffers from the problem
what is known about the cause(s)
what do these problems share in common
Various types of research/evidence supporting a biological
contribution to the
Give examples of at least 5 different kinds of research findings relating biological factors to mood/mood disorders.
What evidence suggests a role for genetics in depression?
What are the 3 main categories of antidepressants, an example of
and how does each work?
In what way is their effect on brain chemistry similar?
How are circadian rhythms different in those suffering from major depression? What hormonal difference do we see in depression?
What is the diathesis - stress theory?
Describe another form of depression that is related to circadian
seems to be the problem and how is it treated?
In what ways is the brain or brain activity different from normal in
What new theory of depression has this given rise to?
what data suggest a role of genetics in the occurrance of
what is the dopamine hypothesis? What evidence supports this theory?
what is the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia? What
supports this theory?
What are some of the ways in which brain anatomy or brain activity
differ from normal in schizophrenics?
What is the glutamate hypothesis? What evidence supports this