teaching empowers significant student learning about oneself, others, and the
learning environments that embody a genuine sense of community.
learning environments: A learning environment encompasses the physical and
social-cultural context within which
students and teachers interact. The classroom can be described as a learning
environment, but so also can a study room, a residence hall, the campus as
settings beyond the university.
Teachers and other students are the most important influences upon
student learning environments within
genuine sense of community: A community is a group of individuals who have
values, and/or beliefs. A community
connects individuals to one another and to the rest of the world. A
learning community can refer to
students and teachers in a course or program, a department, a
college, a residence hall, the
university itself, or groups beyond the university. A genuine sense of
community is a feeling that one
belongs and is appreciated by other members of the community. A
learning community makes connections
among teachers, students, subject matter, educational
purposes and goals, the university as
a whole, and the larger world.
general statements identify and summarize significant student learning in
undergraduate education and the role
of the teacher:
"Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education" (AAHE Bulletin, March 1987):
cooperation among students (sharing backgrounds, use of study groups, peer
active learning (students may summarize to the class, use role playing or
simulations, use field trips or internships).
prompt feedback (prompt, detailed evaluations on performance).
time on task (clarify class preparation expectations, emphasize the need
different learning styles and talents (create a safe environment where
students can ask questions; discourage uncivil remarks; use diverse
teaching activities to encompass different learning styles).
As quoted in Wilbert J. McKeachie, Teaching Tips (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1999), pp. 265-266.
The Nature of Teaching:
teacher knows something not understood
by others, presumably the students.
The teacher can transform understanding, performance skills, or desired
attitudes or values into pedagogical representations and actions. These are
ways of talking, showing,
enacting, or otherwise representing ideas so that the unknowing can come to
know, those without
understanding can comprehend and discern, and the unskilled can become more
teaching necessarily begins with a teacher’s understanding of what is to be
learned and how it is taught.
It proceeds through a series of activities during which the students are
provided specific instruction
and opportunities for learning, though the learning itself ultimately remains
the responsibility of the
students. Teaching must properly be understood to be more than the enhancement
of understanding [because it also must emphasize reasoning, transformation,
Lee S. Shulman, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching, (February, 1987).
“Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform” in Harvard
Educational Review 57 (1), p. 7.