STRUCTURALISM

Considered the first school of psychology. Applied knowledge not emphasized, only the structure of knowledge was.

EDWARD BRADFORD TITCHENER (1867-1927)

Born in England

Student of Wundt at Leipzig

Worked at Cornell University most of his life

Brilliant in languages

Numismatist: someone who collects coins

Founder of Structuralism

He liked cigars (his beard actually started on fire while smoking one)

Started a club named: Titchener’s Experimentalists

            Much like Psychology Club

            Women were not allowed because there was a lot of cigar smoking. Some would sneak anyways…

Christine Ladd Franklin: bugged Titchener to let women join the club. Ran campaigns against him for not allowing women… Titchener’s response was to hold his club “underground”.

Margaret Floy Washburn: one of Titchener’s advisee students and the first he awarded a PhD. To

The club is now known as “Society of Experimental Psychologists” and is still going on today.

Collects Brains

Titchener-Ebbinghaus Illusion

Studied the consciousness and their viewpoints

The only way to accurately study consciousness is by introspection.

Wanted participants to use introspection language not an interpretation of what you see. For example, an interpretation would be: I see an apple; introspective language would be: I see a round, red object.

Stimulus Error: confusing the mental process of study with the stimulus or object being observed (aka your interpretation of the object). This did not take off well…

Consciousness: the sum of our experiences experienced over a lifetime

Lab

            Dangerous and Risqué

                        Asked students to put electrodes on their bodies and have sex with their spouses…

Introspection

            Titchener and Wundt differed

            Titchener: complex cognitive experiences

            Wundt: Apperception (active and organized mind)

            Titchener was a lot like Kulpe and asked for retrospection

Titchener said that there are 3 main problems with psychology and wanted to:

1.      Reduce Consciousness down to its simplest components

2.      Determined laws by which simplest components are associated

3.      Connect with psychological conditions

Titchener believed we had 3 elements of Conscious Experience

            Sensations

                        Quality

                        Duration

                        Clearness

                        Intensity

            Images

                        Quality

                        Duration

                        Clearness

                        Intensity

            Affections or Emotions

                        Quality

                        Duration

                        Intensity

Wundt believed there was a tridimensional theory of emotions and Titchener disagreed and said there were only pleasant and unpleasant emotions.

1920’s Rejected Structuralism

Criticisms of Structuralism

            Too subjective

            Too concerned with internal behaviors

            Introspection or Retrospection? We still loose information…

Titchener’s Issues

                        Maybe you cannot break up experiences

                        No animal or child psychology? Behaviorism became more popular at this time

                        Limited use

                                    There is a reason for language

                                    What can you do with this information?

Good things about Structuralism

            First major school of thought

            Big influence on Experimental Psychology

It made a good starter school of thought- others could use it as a foundation of what not to do.

 

Structuralism

Considered the FIRST school of psychology. Applied knowledge was not emphasized, only the STRUCTURE of knowledge was.

Edward Bradford Titchener
(1867-1927)

Born in England

Student of Wundt

Cornell University

Brilliant in languages

Numismatist

He liked cigars

Titchener Illusion

Experimentalists

Much like a Psychology Club

Women were not allowed

Christine Ladd Franklin

Margaret Floy Washburn

Society of Experimental Psychologists

What do you see?

Stimulus Error

Confusing the mental process of study with the stimulus or object being observed.

Consciousnesss

The sum of our experiences as the exist at a given time

Mind

The sum of our experiences experienced over a lifetime

Introspection

Titchener and Wundt differed

Titchener: complex cognitive experience

Wundt: Apperception (active and organized mind)

Elements of Conscious Experience

Sensations

Quality

Duration

Clearness

Intensity

Images

Quality

Duration

Clearness

Intensity

Affections

Quality

Duration

Intensity

Criticisms

Too subjective

Too concerned with internal behavior

Introspection or retrospection?

Titchener’s issues

Maybe you can’t break up experiences

No animal or child psychology?

Limited use?

 

Good things

First major school of thought in psychology

Influence on experimental psychology

It made a good starter school of thought