Lecture:

 

 

 

I.                    Persuasion

a.       Basically a change in attitude, which MAY lead to a change in behavior.

b.      2 approaches to persuasion

                                                               i.      Message Learning Approach – Hovland

1.      Attitude change depends on

a.       Attention to the message

b.      Comprehension of the message

c.       Acceptance of the message

2.      4 factors that influence persuasion

a.       Source

b.      Message

c.       Medium/ channel

d.      Target

                                                             ii.      Elaboration Likelihood model – Petty & Cacioppo

1.      Central route:  people think carefully about the communication.  Influenced by the strength of the argument.  (logical, practical, useful)

2.      Peripheral route:  influenced by cues irrelevant to the content and the quality of the communication.

c.       Source variables

                                                               i.      Class examples:  appearance, demeanor, commanding voice, eye contact, credentials

                                                             ii.      Credibility:  trustworthiness, attractiveness, similarity, education and experience, likeability

                                                            iii.      Discounting cues:  low credibility causes us to reject a message

1.      Sleeper effect:  the delayed effectiveness of a message from a non-credible source most effective if:

a.       The message is convincing enough to lead to persuasion

b.      Discounting occurs after not before

c.       Discounting occurs faster than message

d.      Message

                                                               i.      Evidence vs. Vividness

1.      Gonzales:  home owners and weather stripping

a.       61% vividness

b.      15% evidence

2.      Fear appeals

3.      Humor- extremely effective (catching attention and makes us pay attention)

4.      One vs. two sided messages

a.       Opposite end of argument= 2 sided better

5.      Presentation order makes a difference

a.       Climax order:  weak to strong (best in court)

b.      Anti-climax order:  strong to weak

c.       Pyramidal:  strong arguments between weak (weakest)

6.      Message Repetition

a.       Repeated exposure (N) or (=) increases the message

7.      Subliminal Advertising

a.       Vicary and the popcorn Coke Study

                                                                                                                                       i.      False study

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Doesn’t work

  1 vs. 2 sided messages

-         believe you if you present both sides of the story

  Presentation order makes a difference

-         climax order: weak to strong

-         anticlimax order: strong to weak

-         pyramidal: strong arguments between weak ones

  Repetition

-         repeated exposure increases persuasiveness of message

-         only if (+) or neutral

-         if message is (-), only increases dislike

  Channel variables

-         face to face vs. media: F to F is more persuasive

-         rapid speech- more likely o be persuaded by those who talk quickly

-  also depends on how far message is from your initial stance (latitude of\

         acceptance: we are willing to bend a little. Drastically different- unlikely to be

         persuaded. Best way to change is a little at a time.)

-         speech style- in general powerful is more effective.

Non-powerful

1.      hesitations

2.      disclaimers- I know this is dumb but…

3.      qualifiers- I guess, kind of…

4.      tag questions- “you know,” “right,” “does that make sense?”

Audience Variables

            --who the message is delivered to

 

A.  Mood

 

B.  Level of Involvement

 

C.  Individual Differences

1.      Need for cognition (NFC)- individual’s preference for a tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activities

·        People with low NFC take the peripheral route, which is the image of what something looks like

2.      Self-Monitoring- high self-monitors will go for image oriented ads

(peripheral route)  

·         Low self monitors want logic and practical (central route)

3.      Age

·        Life cycle- attitudes change as people grow older

·        Generational- people maintain the same attitudes when they are younger, but different generations have different attitudes, more accurate over life-cycle

* 18-25 most impressionable to change our attitudes/ mostly when attitudes get formed

* People do tend to get stuck in certain time eras usually between ages 18-25

 

 

Involvement

            --when it involves you, you are most likely to look at all the details when opposed to if it didn’t involve you

 

Self-Generated Persuasion

            -- how to persuade people to persuade themselves

 

Ex:  classroom example…..classroom who was labeled as being such a clean classroom (attributed persuasion) in fact had the cleanest classroom.

 

 

 

 

What doesn’t work in the persuasion of the media?

 

  1. Low credibility
  2. Target the right population
  3. Low behavioral control—if tell someone not to do something, you must provide alternatives
  4. Invulnerability (teenagers are the hardest group)
  5. Habits (hard to change habits)

 

What works in the persuasion of the media? 

 

  1. Monopolization (present in a way that is unfavorable and can’t argue against)
  2. Canalization (have an attitude that is strong, put that towards something that matters; channel it somewhere else
  3. Supplementation (add to message with mascots)
  4. Involvement (tell people why they are involved; what works for the audience

 

 

Persuasion Tactics

 

  1. Level of guilt involved
  2. Humor
  3. Similarity

 

 

Message Learning Approach

Hovland

Attitude change depends on

attention to the message

Comprehension of the message

Acceptance of the message

Factors that influence Persuasion

Source

Message

Medium/channel

Target

Elaboration Likelihood Model

Petty and Cacioppo

Central Route: People think carefully about the communication. Influenced by the strength of the argument

Peripheral Route: Influenced by cues irrelevant to the content and the quality of the communication

Sleeper Effect

the delayed effectiveness of a message from a non-credible source

most effective if:

* the message is convincing enough to lead to persuasion

* discounting occurs after not before

* discounting occurs faster than message

Presentation Order Makes a Difference

Climax Order: Weak to Strong

Anticlimax order: Strong to weak

pyramidal: strong arguments between weak ones

Vividness

If you were to add up all of the cracks around and under the doors of your home, you'd have the equivalent of a hole the size of a football in your living room wall. Think for a moment about all the heat that would escape from a hole that size. That's precisely why I'm recommending that you install weatherstripping....and your attic totally lacks insulation. We call that a naked attic. It's as if your home is facing winter not just without an overcoat, but without any clothes at all.

One vs. Two sided messages

I am clearly the most amazing woman you can date, I’m intelligent, I’m rich, and I am way more fun than the other women out there

Well, she definitely is nice and sweet but it’s a matter of priorities. Do you want sweet or do you want everything else?

NFC

Need for Cognition: individual's preference for a tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activities

Speech Styles

Hesitations

Disclaimers

Qualifiers

Tag questions

life cycle: attitudes change as people grow older

generational: people maintain the same attitudes when they are younger, but different generations have different attitudes.

Subliminal Advertising

Vicary and the Popcorn Coke Study

Eat Popcorn