Finegan, C. (2001). "Alternative early
childhood education: Reggio Emilia. ." Kappa Delta Pi Record 37(2):
Kliewer, C. and Landis, D. (1999).
Individualizing literacy instruction for young children with moderate to
severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 66, 85-100.
qualitative study analyzes the meaning of curricular individualization as
it's related to literacy instruction for young children labeled moderately
to severely mentally disabled. Findings from extensive participant
observation and interviews involving 14 teachers, their colleagues, and
students suggest that individualizing practices may stem from two disparate
sources of understanding: institutional or local. Instructional
opportunities made available to children stemming from either source are
described. Implications of a shift to local understanding are
Kliewer, C., Fitzgerald, L. M., Meyer-Mork,
J., Hartman, P., & Raschke, D. (2004). Citizenship for all in the literate
community: An ethnography of young children with significant disabilities in
inclusive early childhood settings. Harvard Educational Review, 74(4),
In this study, the authors use ethnographic methods to
explore literacy development in young children considered to have
significant disabilities. The study settings included nine preschool and
kindergarten classrooms across five programs, all of which involved children
with and without disabilities learning side-by-side. Over the course of two
school years, the authors observed teachers emphasizing children's
narratives, and in so doing effectively fostering the citizenship of all
children in the literate communities of the classrooms under study. The
authors describe several themes that appeared in their data related to
fostering effective literacy development in children historically segregated
from rich curricular opportunities. In this effort, defining literacy as
making meaning and interpreting children with disabilities as competent
meaning-makers was foremost.
Kliewer, C., & Biklen, D. (2001). "School's
not really a place for reading": A research synthesis of the literate lives
of students with severe disabilities. The Association for Persons with
Severe Handicaps, 26(1), 1-12.
Mirenda, Pat (2003). “He’s not really a reader…”:
Perspectives on supporting literacy development in individuals with autism.
Topics in Language Disorders, 23, 271-282.
Rogow, S. M. (1997). Language, literacy
and children with special needs. Scarborough, Ontario, Pippin Publishing
Biklen, D. (1985).
Achieving the complete school; Strategies for effective
mainstreaming. New York: Teachers College Press.
This book is as timely today as it was when it was written
two decades ago. Biklen examines principles and strategies for use in
achieving the successful mainstreaming of students. The chapters are based
upon roles of specific groups (e.g. administrators, parents, teachers).
Biklen argues for the benefits of inclusive practices by referring to
sociological research such as that of Voeltz (1980, 1982) who explains that
integration provides the opportunity 'for students to learn about each
other's humanness, uniqueness, and similarities' (p.9). If
typically-developing or non-labeled students and their teachers (and by
extension, parents of other children) are only exposed to children with
disabilities on a limited basis, they will fail to see the differences among
those with such labels. In other words, with only limited contact with kids
labeled as having disabilities, stereotypes are more likely to be formed.
Biklen, D. (2000). "Constructing inclusion:
Lessons from critical disability narratives." International Journal of
Inclusion Education 4(4): 337-353.
Drawing from critical disability narratives, including
disability studies works, autobiographies and school age students'
commentaries, explored is how discussions of school inclusion might be
expanded to reflect disability voices. The analysis focuses on inclusion
primarily as it concerns students with developmental disabilities such as
autism, cerebral palsy, and Down syndrome, and how, in light of lessons from
critical disability narratives, students with these disabilities might
experience fuller academic as well as social inclusion. Specifically,
presented are four themes drawn from disability narratives: (1) resisting
static understandings of disability; (2) creating and finding contexts for
experiencing competence; (3) learning to recognize and resist normate
narratives of disability; and (4) honoring the experience of disability.
The paper includes a series of assumptions and principles for practicing
inclusion that arguably can be derived from critical disability narratives.
Dunn, L. M. (1968). Special education for
the mildly retarded - Is much of it justifiable? Exceptional Children, 35(1),
D'Alonzo, B., Giordano, G., Vanleeuwen, D.
(1997). Perceptions by teachers about the benefits and liabilities of
inclusion. Preventing School Failure, 42(1), 4.
Edmiaston, R. K. and L. M. Fitzgerald
(2000). "How Reggio Emilia encourages inclusion." Educational Leadership
The Grant Early Childhood
Center in Iowa successfully mainstreams children with disabilities through
Prizing Our Natural Differences (POND), a program based on the Reggio Emilia
approach. Successful inclusion at the Center is facilitated through the four
core elements of the Reggio Emilia approach--encouraging collaborative
relationships between teachers and children, children and their peers,
general and special educators, and teachers and parents; constructing
effective environments; developing project-based curricula; and documenting
learning in multiple ways. By adapting these principles, the POND program
supports the development of a classroom community that allows young children
with disabilities to become full participants, facilitates the development
of each child's autonomy, and promotes individualization of educational
goals and instructional practices to meet the needs of all children.”
Gartner, A., Lipsky, D. (1987). Beyond
special education: Toward a quality system for all students. Harvard
Educational Review, 57, 367-395.
Gartner, A., Lipsky, D. (1987). Capable of
achievement and worthy of respect: Education for handicapped students as if
they were full-fledged human beings. Exceptional Children, 54, 69-74.
Gartner, A., Lipsky, D. (1996). Inclusion,
school restructuring, and the remaking of American society. . Harvard
Educational Review, 66, 762-796.
Giangreco, M., St.
Denis, R., Cloninger, C., Edelman, S., Schattman, R. (1993). "I've counted
Jon": transformational experiences of teachers educating students with
disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(4), 359.
The authors studied the experiences teachers encountered
while including children with disabilities in their classrooms. Based on
teacher interviews, observations, and reflections, the study highlights the
transformation that teachers underwent as they included students with more
significant disabilities in their classes for the first time. Consequently
many of the teachers interviewed also experienced a change in how they
perceived students with disabilities based on their experience of having
those students in their class.
(2004). 'There's no way this kid's retarded': Teachers' optimistic
constructions of students' ability. International Journal of Inclusion
Education, 8, 1-15
This qualitative study analyses the experiences of four
teachers who, within the context of the inclusive classroom, resist
interpreting non-verbal students with autism as mentally retarded and seek
to form a new understanding of ability. The following themes are discussed:
(1) finding situations where students demonstrate competence, (2) rethinking
performance and understanding, and (3) expecting struggles.
Kasa-Hendrickson, C., Kluth, P. (2005). "We
have to start with inclusion and work it out as we go": Purposeful inclusion
for non-verbal students with autism. International Journal of Whole
Schooling, 2(1), 2-14.
In this qualitative study the authors analyzed the
experiences of five teachers who were actively committed to practicing
inclusion and seeking strategies to provide access and opportunity within
the general education classroom. Findings suggest that teachers' thoughtful
planning and systematic teaching created successful educational experiences
for six non-verbal students with autism. Teachers engaged in the following
principles when supporting the successful inclusion of non-verbal students
with autism: establishing the community, making classrooms accessible, and
working through challenges.
Kliewer, C., & Biklen, D. (1996). Labeling:
Who wants to be called retarded? In W. Stainbeck & S. Stainbeck (Eds.),
Controversial issues confronting special education: Divergent perspectives
(pp.83-95). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Kliewer, C. (1998).
The meaning of inclusion. Mental Retardation, 36, 317.
Kliewer responds to Chesley
and Calaluce's article entitled "Deception of inclusion.” In it he
addresses several key points regarding education in general. Specifically
he writes about membership, citizenship, and participation as being
fundamental to education. He clearly defines inclusive education, and cites
both recent and historical research supporting the philosophy and practice
of inclusion. In conclusion Kliewer discusses the "essential role" parents
play in their child's education and how educators must be ever mindful of
insights parents have of their own children.
Kluth, P., Villa, R., Thousand, J.
(2001/2002). ""Our school doesn't offer inclusion" and other legal
blunders." Educational Leadership(24-27).
Taylor, S. J. (1988). "Caught in the
continuum: A critical analysis of the principle of least restrictive
environment." The Journal of the Association of Severe Handicaps
This article presents a critical analysis of
the principle of the least restrictive environment (LRE). The article
begins with a review of the origins of LRE in professional writings and law
and moves next to a discussion of how LRE has been operationalized in terms
of a continuum of residential, educational, and vocational services.
Building on previous critiques of the continuum concept, the author presents
seven conceptual and philosophical flaws or pitfalls in the LRE principle
itself, especially when it is applied to people with severe disabilities.
The author then argues that an uncritical acceptance of LRE may lead to the
establishment of a 'new' community-based continuum and takes the position
that many leading writings in the field can be interpreted to legitimate
this new continuum The conclusion of the article supports an unconditional
commitment to integration and briefly contrasts integration with LRE as a
guiding principle for the design of services and support for people with
developmental disabilities and concludes with a note on the importance of
viewing concepts in historical context.
Thousand, J., Villa, R. (1995). "Inclusion:
Alive and well in the green mountain." Phi Delta Kappan 77(4).
Villa, R., Thousand, J., Meyers, H., Nevin,
A. (1996). Teacher and administrator perceptions of heterogeneous education.
Exceptional Children, 63, 29.
This article is based on survey results from 680 licensed
general and special education teachers and administrators. The authors
suggest, based on their findings, that teachers prefer the idea of educating
students in the general education setting as opposed to pullout programs.
Wansart, W. L. (1995). Teaching as a way of
knowing; Observing and responding to students' abilities. Remedial and
Special Education, 16(3), 166-177.
Wansart challenges teachers to engage in ‘a
conversation with’ their students as they create their own stories. The
author describes teacher researchers as using ‘the stories students reveal
about the competent aspects of their lives as learners to immediately change
their teaching.’ This is a wonderful article for master’s degree students
to read and reflect upon ways to get to know their students’ abilities.
Biklen, D. (1992). Schooling without
labels; Parents, educators, and inclusive education. Philadelphia:
Temple University Press.
In response to administrators, policy makers and critics of
inclusion who question whether or not inclusion works and if so, where,
Biklen suggests we look to families. In this book Biklen highlights six
families and ways they include their children in the greater social realm.
He challenges special education professionals who have done more to increase
their authority status rather than working toward the direct benefit and
inclusion of the individuals with disabilities and their families.
Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L., C. (1995). I
never knew I could stand up to the system: Families' perspectives on
pursuing inclusive education. The Association for Persons with Severe
Handicaps, 20(2), 13-146.
The authors describe the experiences encountered by parents
committed to inclusive education for their children with disabilities.
Results revealed that parents desired inclusive education, because they
viewed it as a fundamental right for their children. Most importantly,
findings indicated that parents employed numerous strategies to obtain
inclusive education for their children, often seeking assistance from the
courts and media. According to the author, these findings suggest the need
for meaningful family and school collaboration.
Palmer, D., Fuller, K., Arora, T., Nelson,
M. (2001). Taking sides: Parent views on inclusion for their children with
severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67, 467.
Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull III, H. R.,
Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L., C. (2006). Families, professionals, advocacy,
inclusion (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
This book shares the themes that emerged
from four families and their experiences and describe the need for trusting
relationships to develop between families and school professionals. The
authors describe the elements of partnerships and suggestions for building
partnerships. Positive outcomes will emerge from the school reform movement
that includes special education and services, suggest the authors.
Turnbull III, H. R., & Turnbull, A. P.
(1985). Parents speak out; then and now (2nd ed.). Columbus: Charles
This book offers a collection of parent
stories describing their experiences as they sought what they thought their
children needed. Most of the parents are also professionals in the field of
special education or related services. In this second edition of the book,
several of the authors provide an update to their stories which makes this
an interesting historical read in addition to offering an intimate
perspective of families.
Biklen, D. & Burke, J. (2006). Presuming competence. Equity &
Excellence in Education, 39 (2), 166-175.
The core of this article is a conversation between a university educator and
a high school student with autism who types to communicate. Out of
this essay, the authors find a series of principles for inclusive schooling,
the most central of which is the idea of presuming competence of students.
Diamond, K. E., Huang, H. (2005).
Preschoolers' ideas about disabilities. Infants and Young Children, 18(1),
"This article examines what we know about typically
developing children's ideas about age mates with disabilities and how
experiences in inclusive programs may influence children's ideas and
attitudes. We focus on young children's understanding of different
disabilities, the ways that parents and teachers can influence children's
ideas, and relations between children's ideas, interactions, and experiences
in settings that include peers with disabilities. Finally, we offer
suggestions of ways that teachers can support preschool children's
interactions and help them to understand what it means to have a
Peck C. A., D., J., Pezzoli, M. (1990). Some
benefits non-handicapped adolescents perceive for themselves from their
social relationships with peers who have severe disabilities. . Journal
of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 15(4), 241-249.
R. F. (1990). "Peter? He comes and goes...": First graders' perspectives on
a part-time mainstream student. The Association for Persons with Severe
Handicaps, 15(4), 231-240.
Staub, D. (1998). Delicate threads:
Friendships between children with and without special needs in inclusive
settings. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
Williams, R. B., et al. (1994). Inclusion
from the perspective of persons with mental retardation, Annual Meeting
of the American Association on Mental Retardation. Manchester, NH.
paper describes how educators/caregivers can learn about inclusion from the
perspective of persons with mental retardation through participation in
selected case study activities. Each educator/caregiver selects an
individual who is involved in the inclusion process in a school or other
program, to study for the year. Information about each subject is
gathered from daily observations, academic or vocational work, cumulative
records, consultation with family, and other sources. It is felt that
the use of such case study activities will result in: greater objectivity in
recording and interpreting behavior, withholding of judgments about behavior
when evidence is lacking, substantiating statements about behavior with
evidence, greater openness to work at understanding the meaningfulness
and/or function of behavior, and increased understanding and appreciation of
what inclusion means to persons with mental retardation.
Barr, M. A., D. A. Craig, et al. (1999).
Assessing literacy with the learning record. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann.
Centre Director Myra Barrs
explains how the Learning Record (LR) “provides a structure of portfolio
assessment across the subject areas” using a combination of detailed
narratives and artifacts of students work. Barrs argues for a more
comprehensive and ongoing structure for assessment that is flexible and able
to accommodate individual differences. Barr outlines four parts of the
assessment process. The first part is completed in the beginning of the
year and involves the description of personal student data developed from
discussions with the student and the family (e.g. language background). The
second part of the record involves on-going observation of students and
their work with teachers making detailed narratives describing what a child
can do. The third part of the LR is a teacher’s summary of a child’s
progress based on the data collected. It includes references to reading and
writing scales like those provided in the Appendices, but a teacher might
prefer to use locally-developed scales or curriculum-based standards. The
fourth part of the LR is written at the end of the school year. Here, the
teacher updates the data collection information. This part of the LR
includes parents’ and students’ reflections upon reviewing the child’s
record of achievement. One teacher commented about using the Learning
Record: “I feel this process is opening up a new avenue for me as a teacher
to see the ‘whole’ child – not simply a statistic or rather a child at ‘such
and such’ a level” (p.47).
Boyd-Batstone, P. (2004). "Focused
anecdotal records assessment: A tool for standards-based, authentic
assessment." The Reading
Teacher 58(3): 230-239.
The author argues that
qualitative measures such as rubrics, student profiles, and anecdotal
records provide measures that fill in the gaps which standardized measures
do not provide to give teachers immediate information to plan for
instruction. The author describes a technique for anecdotal records
assessment that uses the lens of content standards for an initial focus. “As
a classroom teacher and as a teacher educator,” writes the author, “I sought
to develop a teacher-friendly, standards-based way to address recording,
managing, and using anecdotal records for authentic assessment purposes. I
call the system focused anecdotal records assessment (ARA).”
Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation
survey of early literacy achievement. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann.
Erickson, K. A. (2000). All children are
ready to learn: An emergent versus readiness perspective in early literacy
assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 21(3), 193-203.
Assessment of emergent literacy is relatively new to the field of
communication disorders. Traditional approaches to reading assessment
evaluated mastery of reading readiness skills. By contrast, emergent
literacy assessment evaluates the increased awareness and understanding of
print that begin early in development. One of the most influential
figures in emergent literacy assessment has been Marie M. Clay. She
has defined critical components of emergent literacy and, in so doing, has
played an integral role in the paradigm shift from a reading readiness to an
emergent literacy perspective. This article is intended to distinguish
emergent literacy from reading readiness, explicate Marie Clay's
contribution to our current understanding of effective emergent literacy
assessment, and provide some guidance in using her assessment techniques
with children with significant disabilities.
Gioia, B. P. Johnston, et al. (2001).
"Documenting and developing literacy in deaf children." Literacy Teaching
and Learning 6(1): 1-22.
Johnston, P. (2003). "Assessment
Reading Teacher 57(1):
In theory, assessment is about
gathering and interpreting data to inform action. In practice, data
interpretations are constrained by our views of literacy and students, the
assessment conversations that surround us, and the range of "actions" we can
imagine....There are better assessment conversations....These assessment
strategies, documenting and collaboratively analyzing data, will help them
[teachers] achieve their goals of improving their teaching and reducing
achievement differences among groups of students...These are also the stated
goals of high-stakes testing. However, the tests provide no useful or timely
information to help teachers accomplish such goals, and they encourage an
interactional climate that can undermine them. (Journal Extract)
Katims, D. S. (2000). The quest for
literacy; Curriculum and instructional procedures for teaching reading and
writing to students with mental retardation and developmental disabilities,
The Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities of The
Council for Exceptional Children.
Ratcliff, N. J. (2001). "Using authentic
assessment to document the emerging literacy skills of young children."
Association for Childhood Education International 78(2): 66-70.
Ratcliff examines ways in which
5 year olds demonstrate their understanding of reading and writing through
purposeful experiences. Ratcliff discusses the advantages and limitations
for teaching using the following assessment tools to monitor children's
on-going literacy skills: 1.Checklists of sequential skills. Although they
are easy to use to show the presence or absence of particular skills, they
do not 'get at' the child's repertoire; there is no depth to this tool and
it may be problematic because children are inconsistent performers. 2.
Anecdotal records from observations. These involve written detailed
descriptions of an event. The greatest advantage of using this tool is that
the context is recorded, so the teacher can look for patterns in the
environment which might provide the child with greater opportunities to
demonstrate literacy skills. 3. Videotape & audiotape recordings. Although
there is need for more time to review and take notes from these records,
they can be reviewed repeatedly and the teacher and other adults (or even
the child) might take notice of certain things that they would not have in
the one original event. 4. Work samples. These typically are collected
samples of children's written work over time (they could be copies of
electronic outputs) which the teacher studies and writes up a written
reflection describing the context and what features s/he found interesting
in the child's production of the work. Ratcliff suggests the teacher select
the strategies to use, determine a schedule for implementing the strategies
that involves multiple curricula and environments.
Roskos, K. (2004). "Early literacy
assessment - Thoughtful, sensible, and good." The
The author argues for the need for high quality assessment tools to support
the development of strong standards for measuring the success of literacy
programs in preschools and the early primary grades. She discusses issues
surrounding early literacy assessment and calls for norm-referenced
screening and progress monitoring measures to allow the identification of
at-risk learners and the tracking of their progress.