Student Research and Presentations

Student Presentations with Published Abstracts (since 1995)

Osei., O.K.,, F.W. Kolkhorst, F.A. Dolgener, and L.D. Hensley. Effects of ibuprofen on delayed-onset muscle soreness and subsequent exercise performance. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, June, 1998. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30(5 Supplement):S103, 1998.]

Broshears, C., M. Matiasek, J.R. Hill, J. Niak, A.C. Snyder, C. Foster, and K.W. Rundell. Knee angle and Hb/Mb O2 desaturation in the vastus lateralis of speed skaters. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, May, 1997. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29(5 Supplement):S262, 1997.]

MacTaggart, J.N., M.R. Hansen, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Effect of the Access Fat Converstion Activity Bar on fat utilization and time to exhaustion. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, May, 1997. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29(5 Supplement):S51, 1997.]

Voeltz, J.T., F.A. Dolgener, and F.W. Kolkhorst. The effect of high-dose ephedrine hydrochloride on high-intensity treadmill performance. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, June, 1996. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S35, 1996.]

Terrillion, K.A., F.A. Dolgener, F.W. Kolkhorst, and S.A. Joslyn. The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal running bouts. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, June, 1996. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S36, 1996.]

Hoeger, M.K., F.W. Kolkhorst, and C.L. Thurman. Accessª Fat Conversion Activity Bar Fails to Increase Fat Utilization During Exercise. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, June, 1995. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Supplement):S11, 1995.]

Williams, R.M., F.A. Dolgener, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Anaerobic Performance in Sprint-Trained, Middle-Distance Trained, and Untrained Women. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, June, 1995. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Supplement):S8, 1995.]


Student Research (since 1992)

  • Atta K. Osei (Physical Education). The effects of ibuprofen on exercise-induced muscle soreness and performance. F.W. Kolkhorst, chair, December, 1996.

    This study investigated the effects of ibuprofen on muscular soreness and performance following an eccentrically-biased treadmill run. Ibuprofen was administered either prior to or 24-hr following the exercise bout to assess the effects of timing of ibuprofen ingestion. Muscle soreness, flexibility, and anaerobic performance of subjects were followed for 48-hr postexercise. While soreness was increased through 48-hr postexercise, 1200 g of ibuprofen administered during a 24-hr period did not diminish soreness nor affect postexercise muscular performance. He concluded that ibuprofen did not reduce muscular soreness or improve muscular performance after eccentric-biased exercise. Atta’s thesis received First Place in UNI’s Outstanding Master’s Thesis 1997 Award Competition.


  • Jeff Marks (Physical Education). Incidence of injury in novice marathoners. F.A. Dolgener, chair, August, 1996.

    In a recent 15-week semester course offered at the university, students trained for and completed a marathon. Subjects trained either 4 or 6 days per week, and running-related injuries were monitored throughout the training period. Though not statistically analyzed, the 4 day/week training group had a higher incidence of injury than the 6 day/week group. Furthermore, most injuries occured following the fourth week of training.


  • Catherine L. Broshears (Physical Education). Effect of Access Activity Bar on fat metabolism during prolonged exercise. F.W. Kolkhorst, advisor, August, 1996.

    This was a follow-up study of an investigation by M.A. Davidson on the Access bar for the purpose of collecting additional data. As the Access bar failed to demonstrate any effects on metabolism after 45 min of exercise, this study investigated whether or not use of the Access bar would affect carbohydrate and fat metabolism during a longer exercise bout (2-hr treadmill run). Blood lactate, plasma glycerol, the respiratory exchange ratio, and perceived exertion were monitored during the treadmill runs to assess fat mobilization and utilization. No effect by the Access on lipolysis or fat oxidation was observed during the 2 hr of treadmill running.


  • Martha A. Davidson (Biology). Effect of Access Activity Bar on fat metabolism during prolonged exercise. C.L. Thurman, advisor, F.W. Kolkhorst, co-advisor, May, 1996.

    This was a follow-up study of M.K. HoegerÕs initial investigation of the Access bar. As the Access bar failed to demonstrate any effects on metabolism after 45 min of exercise, this study investigated whether or not use of the Access bar would affect carbohydrate and fat metabolism during a longer exercise bout (2-hr treadmill run). Blood lactate, plasma glycerol, the respiratory exchange ratio, and perceived exertion were monitored during the treadmill runs to assess fat mobilization and utilization. No effect by the Access on lipolysis or fat oxidation was observed during the 2 hr of treadmill running.


  • Amy Terpstra (Biology). Effect of Access Activity Bar on blood lactate accumulation during graded exercise. C.L. Thurman, advisor, F.W. Kolkhorst, co-advisor, May, 1996.

    The manufacturer of the Access Fat Conversion Activity Bar contends that its use prior to exercise will inhibit lactate production during exercise. This study investigated their claim by having four subjects complete two graded treadmill protocols during which ventilatory measures, submaximal and maximal blood lactate concentrations, and time to exhaustion were measured. No differences between the Access bar or control trials were observed for any of the variables measured which led to her conclusion that the Access bar does not reduce lactate production or fatigue during high-intensity exercise.


  • Jason N. MacTaggart (Biology, Wartburg College). Effect of Access Activity Bar on time to exhaustion. F.W. Kolkhorst, advisor, April, 1996.

    This was considered the definitive test of the effectiveness of the potential benefit of the Access bar on performance. Seven male collegiate track athletes completed two protocols of approximately 90 min each in which they ran to the point of exhaustion. This study was conducted in collaboration with M.R. Hansen. Time to exhaustion, and time to exhaustion was assessed from plasma glycerol and glucose, and the respiratory exchange ratio during the treadmill runs. While subjects ran slightly longer for the control trial than for the Access bar trial, differences were non-significant. Thus, the Access bar was concluded to not benefit exercise performance nor delay the point of exhaustion. An abstract of this study with Jason as first author was presented at the 1997 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S51, 1997.]


  • Matt R. Hansen (Biology, Wartburg College). Effect of Access Activity Bar on time to exhaustion. F.W. Kolkhorst, advisor, April, 1996.

    This was considered the definitive test of the effectiveness of the potential benefit of the Access bar on performance. Seven male collegiate track athletes completed two protocols of approximately 90 min each in which they ran to the point of exhaustion. This study was conducted in collaboration with J.N. MacTaggart. Time to exhaustion, and time to exhaustion was assessed from plasma glycerol and glucose, and the respiratory exchange ratio during the treadmill runs. While subjects ran slightly longer for the control trial than for the Access bar trial, differences were non-significant. Thus, the Access bar was concluded to not benefit exercise performance nor delay the point of exhaustion. An abstract of this study with Matt as a co-author was presented at the 1997 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S51, 1997.]


  • Stacy C. Bukatz (Communicative Disorders). Influence of physical fitness level on DPOAE and susceptibility to TTS in females. J.J. Smaldino, chair, April, 1996.

    A review of L.R. Battani’s data suggested a stronger relationship in females than males between fitness and temporary hearing loss following noise exposure. This study replicated part of BattaniÕs study but used only female subjects. Additionally, an updated version of the DPOAE system, an objective measure for measuring hearing sensitivity, was validated against subjective audiometric thresholds. Results indicated a moderate relationship between hearing sensitivity and fitness measures which included VO2max body composition, and activity history. She concluded that physical fitness, through a yet unknown mechanism, augments temporary hearing loss following noise exposure.


  • Po-Ching Feng (Physical Education). The effect of supramaximal exercise intensity on the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in trained females. F.W. Kolkhorst, chair, March, 1996.

    Determination of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit can be used to assess anaerobic capacity. This study attempted to determine the exercise intensity that produces the largest accumulated oxygen deficit. Female collegiate track athletes completed three different supramaximal treadmill protocols. The lowest intensity, 110% of VO2max, resulted in a greater oxygen deficit than the 140% of VO2max intensity. He concluded that a supramaximal intensity lasting more than 2.5 min optimizes the accumulated oxygen deficit.


  • Kent A. Terrillion (Physical Education). The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal running bouts. F.A. Dolgener, chair, October, 1995.

    Depletion of creatine phosphate is thought to be a primary cause of fatigue during high-intensity exercise, however creatine supplementation may increase muscle creatine levels and delay the onset of fatigue. Two groups of trained runners completed two 700-m maximal running bouts to determine whether creatine supplementation would provide an ergogenic aid to performance. No differences in performance were observed between the creatine and placebo groups suggesting that creatine supplementation does not benefit exercise performance of this duration. An abstract of KentÕs paper was submitted for presentation to the 1996 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. The abstract was reviewed and accepted, and was published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S36, 1996. A manuscript of his study with Kent as the lead author was also recently published. (International Journal of Sport Nutrition 7:138-142, 1997.)


  • John T. Voeltz (Physical Education). The effect of high-dose ephedrine hydrochloride on high-intensity treadmill performance. F.A. Dolgener, chair, July, 1995.

    The effects of ephedrine dosed at twice the manufacturerÕs recommendation were evaluated during a 2-min maximal treadmill test. No differences in time to exhaustion or maximal blood lactate concentration were observed between the treatment and placebo groups suggesting that ephedrine has no ergogenic benefit to short-term maximal performance at this dosage. An abstract of the paper was presented at the 1996 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28(5 Supplement):S35, 1996.]


  • Lori A. Vis (Physical Education). Relationship between physical fitness and self-reported physical activity levels of elementary children. L. D. Hensley, chair, May, 1995.

    This study investigated the relationship of self-reported physical activity to performance on a one-mile run/walk test and the sum of the triceps and calf skinfolds among fourth and fifth grade students. Physical activity was ascertained through the use of a two-week log whereby students would record daily the type of activity, duration of exercise bout, and perceived level of exertion. All testing occurred during late Spring. Findings revealed that there was a slight relationship between between an overall index of physical activity and time on the one-mile run/walk test and no significant relationship between physical activity and body composition. This study served as a pilot project for a larger, state-wide effort to investigate the leisure time physical activity behaviors of Iowa youth.


  • Kristine M. Feldman (Physical Education). A comparision of two methods of body composition assessment in prepubescent males and females. F. A. Dolgener, chair, May, 1995.

    This study was designed to compare bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry in the prediction of percentage of body fat for 6-8 year old males and females. Specifically, body fatness was determined by the RJL System's BIA 101 Impedance Analyzer and by age-appropriate prediction equations using skinfold measurements of the subscapular and triceps sites. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the mean percentage of body fat of females obtained from BIA and anthropometry, but no difference for the group of males. However, the Pearson correlation between BIA and skinfold derived body fatness for males was only r = .12. It was concluded that the use of BIA as a technique for determining body composition of prepubescent males and females is questionable.


  • Marie K. Hoeger (Biology). Evaluation of Access Fat Conversion Activity Bar used in physical training. C.L. Thurman, advisor, and F.W. Kolkhorst, co-advisor, December, 1994.

    This study tested assertions made by the manufacturer of the Access Fat Conversion Activity Bar that its use prior to exercise would stimulate greater fat and less carbohydrate use during exercise. Substrate utilization was monitored while performing two identical 45-min treadmill exercises. Ventilatory data and plasma glycerol and lactate concentrations indicated that the Access bar had no effect on fat utilization. An abstract of MarieÕs paper was submitted for presentation to the 1995 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. The abstract was reviewed and accepted, and was published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Supplement):S11, 1995.


  • Raquel M. Williams (Physical Education). Anaerobic performance and strength in the upper body and lower body in sprint-trained, middle-distance trained, and untrained college-age women. F.A. Dolgener, chair, December, 1994.

    The relationship of upper and lower body anaerobic power and capacity was investigated in female track athletes and untrained females. Findings of this study indicate that sprint-trained athletes had greater upper and lower body strength and anaerobic power than middle-distance trained or untrained females. An abstract of this study was submitted for presentation to the American College of Sports Medicine 1995 Annual Meeting. The abstract was reviewed and accepted, and was published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Supplement):S8, 1995.


  • Julia A. Gerstenberger (Physical Education). The relationship between flexibility, vertical jump, and skill in female high school volleyball players. F.A. Dolgener, chair, July, 1994.

    Flexibility, vertical jumping ability, and volleyball skill were evaluated in 112 female high school volleyball players to determine their relationships. Significant differences in flexibility were found between sides, but, there was a low, but significant positive correlation between skill and jumping ability. However, there was no significant correlation between flexibility and ability.


  • Mark Farley (Physical Education). Effectiveness of the University of Northern Iowa's periodized resistance training program on NCAA I-AA intercollegiate football athletes. F.A. Dolgener, chair, May, 1994.

    This project attempted to assess the effectiveness of UNIÕs weight training program for their football players. Some, but not all, strength and power measures improved during the sampling period of 1991-1994.


  • Anne B. McGown Patneaude (Physical Education). Responsibilities of worksite health promotion directors. L. D. Hensley, chair, December, 1994.

    This description study used a self-report mailed survey to health promotion directors in Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin who were members of the Association of Fitness and Business (AFB) to ascertain the importance of 27 specific responsiblities within four areas of competence. In general, the results indicated that business skills, marketing and promotion, budget analysis knowledge, behavior modification techniques, and a broad health science background were important to deliver health promotion programs effectively.


  • Christopher P. Klieman (Physical Education). Artificial turf vs natural grass: an injury etiology. L. D. Hensley, chair, May, 1993.

    Head athletic trainers of the football programs at seven Gateway Athletic Conference institutions were interviewed to obtain their opinions regarding injuries occurring on natural and artificial playing surfaces. The consensus viewpoint from the perspective of those athletic trainers interviewed was the preference of a grass playing surface. Trainers reported a higher incidence of injuries on articial surfaces, as well as longer rehabilitation periods for athletes injuried. The playing field (artificial turf) at the University of Northern Iowa was the one most frequently mentioned as the surface most likely to result in surface-related injuries.


  • Tom D. Toepher (Physical Education). Comparison of expired air temperature using a heated or unheated pneumotachometer. F.W. Kolkhorst, chair, April, 1993.

    Expired air temperatures at the mouthpiece valve and the pneumotachometer were measured during a prolonged treadmill run at a moderate relative intensity. This was done in order to observe the temperature variations during exercise, and to provide a recommended expired air temperature to use for correcting gas volumes to STPD. This has importance for metabolic measurement systems that only estimate expired air temperature. A heated pneumotachometer and several facemasks valued at over $1000 were donated by Hans Rudolph, inc., for use in this study. Expired air temperatures achieved a plateau within 5 min of exercise and remained stable throughout 45-min of constant speed running at a moderate intensity. An abstract was submitted with Tom as a co-author for presentation to the 1994 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. The abstract was reviewed and accepted, and was published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26(5 Supplement):S206, 1994. Also, an article of this study with Tom as a co-author was published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(12):1621-1625, 1995.


  • Lisa R. Battani (Communicative Disorders). Influence of physical fitness level on susceptibility to TTS as measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions. J.J. Smaldino, chair, July, 1992.

    This study had two purposes: a) to investigate the relationship of physical fitness and temporary hearing loss after noise exposure and b) to validate the DPOAE system, a new method for determining hearing sensitivity, with the CUBDIS system, a currently accepted procedure. There was a low correlation of hearing sensitivity measurements between the DPOAE and CUBDIS systems that was attributed to problems in the DPOAE software. Also, the data suggested that physical fitness is moderately and negatively correlated with temporary hearing sensitivity after noise exposure. Results of this study were presented to the 1993 American Academy of Audiology Annual Meeting, and at the 1995 American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting [Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5 Supplement):S154, 1995.]


  • Bobbie Becker (Physical Education). The effect of experimental alterations in excess weight on vertical jump performance. I. Ahrabi-Fard, chair, December, 1992.

    In order to investigate the consequences of relatively small changes in body weight on vertical jump performance, 19 women collegiate volleyball players were examined under six weight conditions: normal weight, 1 extra pound, 2 extra pounds, 3 extra pounds, 4 extra pounds, and 5 extra pounds. The extra weight was attached to each subject by means of a harness vest which secured the weight to the waist of the subject. Vertical jump performance was measured through the use of a Vertec jump device and recorded to the half inch for each weight condition. Experimental treatments were counterbalanced to eliminate any order effect. ANOVA indicated that vertical jump performance was affected by added weight. It was concluded that minor fluctuations in weight of up to 2 pounds seemed to have little affect on jump performance, but weight equal to and greater than 3 pounds resulted in a decrement in performance.


  • Ann R. Arns (Physical Education). Selected personal health and physical activity behaviors of elementary school physical educators in Iowa. L. D. Hensley, chair, December, 1992.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate selected personal health behaviors of elementary school physical education teachers in Iowa. Specific behaviors of interested included: eating, sleeping, physical activity, substance use, driving, and medical care. A random sample of 126 elementary school physical educators from throughout the state completed a self-report questionnaire designed to ascertain information about the behaviors of interest. In general, findings showed that the elementary physical education teachers surveyed followed desired health practices. Of concern, however, was the fact that only about half (51.2%) of the teachers reported not engaging in regular physical activity, a surprising findings considering the subject area taught.


  • Benton A. Miller (Physical Education). Anaerobic power gains through plyometrics: comparison of college basketball players performing drills at the beginning versus the end of practice. F.A. Dolgener, chair, July, 1992.

    This study investigated whether plyometric training performed either before or after basketball practice would influence anaerobic power gains. Anaerobic power measurements of UNI menÕs basketball players were taken during the 1991-1992 season. The timing of plyometric training during a practice session was shown to not influence anaerobic power gains in basketball players.


  • Amy E. Fuller (Physical Education). Philosophies and practices regarding youth physical fitness testing in Iowa schools. L. D. Hensley, chair, July, 1992.

    Seventy-nine physical education teachers at public schools throughout Iowa that had been previously randomly selected to participate in the Iowa Youth Fitness Project completed a self-report questionnaire about their philosophies and practices regarding physical fitness of children and youth. Findings indicated that physical fitness testing was a priority item within the selected programs. Cardiorespiratory endurance and flexibility were the two most commonly tested components of physical fitness. The President's Challenge Fitness Test was the test of choice, being used by 33% of the physical educators. Moreover, slightly over of the selected physical educators reported using a performance-related fitness test instead of a health-related fitness test which had been advocated for over a decade. Findings also revealed that although fitness testing was an important item to include within a physical education class, there was little evidence to indicate that the fitness testing was linked to other parts of the PE curriculum or that meaningful diagnostic use was made with the results.


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