To receive a grade in this course, you must expose yourself to research in psychology.  

You may participate as a subject in actual  research being conducted at the university,  read and summarize peer-reviewed  research articles, attend a presentation of recent research findings, or some combination of the three.   

 All Introduction to Psychology students at  UNI  must have FOUR credits at the end of the semester. This is a university requirement.

  Option one : SONA  During a semester, a variety of experiments are conducted in the Department of Psychology by both faculty and students. These may include experiments in social, clinical, health, personality, industrial, cognitive, and biological psychology.  In any one semester only some of these areas will be represented. Experiments will generally begin to be available during the third or fourth week of school, with more available as the semester progresses. Participating in research is a good way to learn more about psychology and methodology while contributing directly to our knowledge of human behavior. Click on the "option one" link above for more information and to log onto the participant manager (I credit for one hour or any part of one hour). You should keep the informed consent given to you when you participate until the end of the semester, but you do not have to do anything to receive your credit.

The research carried out in the psychology department is important to UNIís goal of involving students in hands-on and applied educational experiences, so please treat your participation seriously. All studies are reviewed and approved in advance by the Institutional Review Board at UNI. When you arrive at each study, that study will be explained to you by the researcher and you will have a chance to ask any questions you may have about participation. You will be asked to give your consent to participate.

You earn .5 research credit for studies that require 30 minutes or less, 1 credit for studies that require between 35 and 60 minutes, 2 credits for studies that require between 65-90 minutes, and 3 credits for studies that require 90-120 minutes. Unless otherwise indicated, you can participate only ONCE in a specific study.  

Overview of Signing up for Research Studies: The Psychology department uses a WEB-based sign-up system known as the SONA system. All experiments are listed on the Website located at: All research credit earned through participation (Option 1) will be recorded on the website. Links to SONA are also on the Psychology Department Webpage (


    Option two:  Read one of the pre-approved journal article and write a 2 page summary (1 credit for each summary). DO NOT WORRY THAT THE STATISTICS DO NOT MAKE PERFECT SENSE, just try and understand broadly what was done and how the research (the careful systematic collection of data) led the authors to their conclusions. Read the "abstract" multiple times. If possible, add a sentence about how it links to something you learned in class. You may submit one article summary per week. You must plan ahead to earn research credits in this manner; you would not be able to submit all four summaries in the final week when research credits are due.

             Preapproved article "The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference" by Nantais and Schellenberg, 1999. Thsw research suggets that the effect of listening to Mozart on certain tasks is not eally an effect of the music at all....

Preapproved article "Family Acceptance in Adolescence and the Health of LGBT Young Adults" by C. Ryan and otehrs (2010)

Preapproved journal article: "Individual music therapy for depression: randomised controlled trial." by J. Erkkila and otehrs (2011).

Pre-a[[rpved journal article "Applied Research The Effects of Hypnosis on Flow States and Three-Point Shooting Performance in Bastketball Players" by J. Pates and others (2002).

Preapproved journal article "The benefits of expressive writing after the Madrid terrorist attack: Implications for emotional activation and positive affect" related to effectiveness of therapy. and handling stressors.  Here the context is after Madrid, Spain attack...the full text is available. There is a large body of empirical research on this topic.

Preapproved journal article on Violent video games and aggression: Longitudinal effects of Violent Video games on Aggression in US and Japan by Anderson et al. Note this researc is not itself an experimental design.

            Preapproved artilce. An example of experimental research on viewing violence/violent vide game playing. Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior JESP Barthalow, 2002.

Pre-approved journal article two shows how details are often included in scientific publishing.  "2.5 month old infants' reasoning about when objects should and should not be occluded" This is one of the original peer reviewed publications that is discussed in your book and viewed in the class video. related to what was seen in the video and covered in your book. It is long, and it is OK to skip over the detailed statistics (ask me).

            Pre - approved journal article three shows how a peer reviewed can be short and to the point. This is EFA vitamin supplements and behavior, "Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial." FYI as background, these nutrients appear to make neuron membranes more "flexible" (but the effects on neurons are not covered in the article, just behavior) Note the importance of the "control group" for making cause and effect conclusions about the supplements.

           Pre-approved journal article number four is a review of prenatal cocaine exposure research and can be found at UNI library      Frank, D. et al. (2001). Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

            Pre-approved journal article five is the full text of the Dweck research we discuss in class (get this by visiting the UNI library):   Kaarmins, M. L. & Dweck, C. S.  (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology. volume 35(3): 835-847. A related study was in a video we watched.

       Preapproved journal articles include research (that means with data) that I have published. If you are interested in reading one, it counts.


    Option three: Attend a special research presentation held at UNI and write a 2 page summary.  The presentation(s) must be pre-approved and is not available every semester.       Oral presentatons and attending this UNI event can count for up to 2 credits